Viking Sources in Translation

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle: Peterborough manuscript

The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle contains an account year by year of events relevant to English history. King Alfred might have been the original initiator of this history work. It is preserved in several medieval manuscripts, which all contain the same text for the early years, but then provide more or less differing accounts of more recent year.

This is the text of the main manuscript, called the Peterborough manuscript (for this is where it was probably written). Four other manuscripts are also excerpted in the Viking Sources in Translation, but only for the years in which they differ significantly from the Peterborough manuscript.

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle: Peterborough Manuscript

793. Here terrible portents came about over the land of Northumbria, and miserably frightened the people: these were immense flashes of lightning,and fiery dragons were seen flying in the air. A great famine immediately followed these signs; and a little after that in the same year on 8 January the raiding of heathen men miserably devastated God's church in Lindisfarne island by looting and slaughter. And Sicga passed away on 22 February.

794 [796]. Here Pope Hadrian and King Offa passed away. And Aethelred, king of Northumbria, was killed by his own nation on 19 April. And Bishop Ceolwulf and Bishop Eadbald left the country. And Ecgfrith succeeded to the Mercian kingdom, and passed away the same year. And Eadberht, who was by another name named Praen, succeeded to the kingdom in Kent. And [794] Ealdorman Aethelheard passed away on 1 August. And the heathen raided in Northumbria and looted Ecgfrith's minster at the Don mouth;'' and there one of their commanders was killed, and also some of their ships were broken up by bad weather, and many of them drowned there; and some came to shore alive, and then were immediately killed at the river mouth.

795 [796]. Here the moon grew dark between cock-crow and dawn on 28 March. And Eardwulf succeeded to the kingship in Northumbria on 14 May; and he was afterwards blessed and raised to his kingly seat on 26 May in York by Archbishop Eanbald and Aethelberht and Hygebald and Baldwulf.

796. Here Offa, king of Mercia, passed away on 10 August; he ruled 40 years; and Archbishop Eanbald on 10 August the same year, and his body lies in York; and this same year passed away Bishop Ceolwulf, and they consecrated a second Eanbald in the other's stead on 14 August. And the same year [798] Ceolwulf, king of Mercia, ravaged over the inhabitants of Kent and the inhabitants of the Marsh, and captured Praen, their king, and led him bound into Mercia.

797 [799]. Here the Romans cut out the tongue of the pope Leo and put out his eyes and made him flee from his seat; and immediately afterwards by God's help he could see and speak, and was pope again as he was before. And [797] Eanbald obtained the pallium on 8 September; and Bishop Aethelberhtpassed away on 16 October, and they consecrated Heardred bishop in his stead on 30 October.

798. Here in the Spring, on 2 April, there was a big battle at Whalley in Northumbria, and there they killed Alric, Heardberht's son, and many others with him.

799 [801]. Here Archbishop Aethelred and Cyneberht, bishop of Wessex, went to Rome.

800. Here the moon grew dark at the second hour of the night on 16 January. And [802] King Beorhtric and Ealdorman Worr passed away. And Egbert succeeded to the kingdom of Wessex: and the same day Ealdorman Aethelmund rode from the Hwicce across at Kempsford; then Ealdorman Weohstan met him with the Wiltshire men; and there was a big battle, and both ealdormen were killed there and the Wiltshire men took the victory. [800] King Charles was made emperor, and called Augustus by the Romans, and condemned to death those who had dishonoured Pope Leo, but at the entreaties of the pope, banished them, reducing death to exile. This Pope Leo in fact consecrated him as emperor.

802.. Here the moon grew dark at dawn on 20 December. And [804] Beornmod was consecrated as bishop for Rochester the same year.

803. Here Hygebald, bishop of Lindisfarne, passed away on 24 June; and they consecrated Egbert in his stead on 11 June. And [805] Archbishop ^Ethelheard passed away in Kent, and Wulfred was consecrated as archbishop.

[806]. Here Archbishop Wulfred obtained the pallium.

[807]. Here King Cuthred passed away among the inhabitants of Kent - and Abbess Ceolburh and Heardberht.

806. Here the moon grew dark on 1 September. And Eardwulf, king of Northumbria, was driven from his kingdom, and Eanberht, bishop of Hexham, passed away.

810. Charles made peace with Nicephorus, emperor of Constantinopole.

[814]. Here King Charles passed away; and he ruled 45 years. And Archbishop Wulfred and Wigberht, bishop of Wessex, went to Rome. Cireneius sent his legates with an offer of peace to the emperor Charles. The emperor Charles died.

[815]. Here Archbishop Wulfred turned back to his own bishopric, with the blessing of the pope Leo; and that year King Egbert raided in Cornwall from east to west.

[816]. Here Leo the noble pope, and the holy, passed away, and Stephen succeeded to the rule after him.

815 [817]. Here Pope Stephen passed away, and after him Paschal was ordained as pope. And the same year the 'English Quarter' burned down.

819 [821]. Here Coenwulf, king of Mercia, passed away, and Ceolwulf succeeded to the kingdom, and Ealdorman Eadberht passed away.

[823]. Here Ceolwulf was deprived of his kingdom.

[824]. Here two ealdorman, Burhhelm and Muca, were killed; and there was a synod at Clofesho.

[825]. Here there was a battle of Britons and of Devon-men at the Tax Ford. And the same year Egbert, king of the West Saxons, and Beornwulf, king of Mercians, fought at Ellendun, and Egbert took the victory, and a great slaughter was made there. Then he sent his son Aethelwulf from the army,and Ealhstan his bishop, and Wulfheard his ealdorman, to Kent with a great troop, and they drove Baldred the king north over the Thames, and the inhabitants of Kent turned to him - and the Surrey men and South Saxons and East Saxons - because earlier they were wrongly forced away from his relatives. And, for fear of the Mercians, the same year the king and the nation of the East Angles sought King Egbert as their protector and guardian; and the same year the East Angles killed Beornwulf, king of the Mercians.

825 [827]. Here Ludeca, king of Mercia, was killed, and his 5 ealdormen with him, and Wiglaf succeeded to the kingdom.

827 [829]. Here [828] the moon grew dark on Christmas night. And that year King Egbert conquered the kingdom of Mercia and all that was south of the Humber; and he was the eighth king who was 'Wide Ruler'; and the first who had so great a [rule] was Aelle, king of Sussex; second was Ceawlin, king of West Saxons; third Aethelberht, king of the inhabitants of Kent; fourth Raedwald, king of East Anglia; fifth Edwin, king of Northumbria; sixth was Oswald who ruled after him; seventh was Oswy, Oswald's brother; eighth was Egbert, king of West Saxons. And this Egbert led an army to Doreagainst the Northumbrians; and there they offered him submission and concord; and on that they parted.

[830]. Here Wiglaf obtained again the kingdom of Mercia; and Bishop Aethelbald passed away; and the same year King Egbert led the army among the Welsh, and he entirely reduced them to humble submission.

[832]. Here Archbishop Wulfred passed away.

[833]. Here Ceolnoth was chosen as [arch]bishop and ordained; and [832] Abbot Feologild passed away.

[834]. Here Archbishop Ceolnoth obtained the pallium.

[835]. Here heathen men raided across Sheppey.

83 3 [83 6]. Here King Egbert fought against 25 ship-loads at Carhampton;and great slaughter was made there, and the Danish had possession of the place of slaughter.'' And Hereferth and Wigferth, 2 bishops, passed away; and Dudda and Osmod, 2 ealdormen, passed away.

[838]. Here a great raiding ship-army came to Cornwall, and theyturned into one and were fighting against Egbert, king of Wessex. Then he campaigned against them and fought with them at Hingston, and there put to flight both the Britons and the Danish.

[839]. Here King Egbert passed away; and earlier, before he was king, Offa, king of Mercia, and Beorhtric, king of Wessex, put him to flight from the land of the English to the land of the Franks for 3 years. And that Egbert ruled 37 years and 7 months; and his son Aethelwulf succeeded to the kingdom of Wessex, and his second son, Athelstan, succeeded to the kingdom of the inhabitants of Kent and to Surrey and to the kingdom of Sussex.

[840]. Here Ealdorman Wulfheard fought at Southampton against 33 ship-ioads, and made great slaughter there and took the victory; and that year Wulfheard passed away. And Ealdorman Aethelhelm fought against the Danish on Portland with the Dorset men, and the ealdorman was killed," and the Danish had possession of the place of slaughter.

[842]. Here there was a great slaughter in London, and in Quentovic,and in Rochester.

[843]. Here King Aethelwulf fought at Carhampton against 35 shiploads, and the Danish had possession of the place of slaughter.

845 [848]. Here Dux Earnwulf with the Somerset men, and Bishop Ealhstan and Ealdorman Osric with the Dorset men, fought against a Danish raiding-army at the mouth of the Parret, and made a great slaughter there and took the victory.

851 [850]. Here Ealdorman Ceorl with Devonshire fought against the heathen men at Wicga's stronghold, and made a great slaughter there and took the victory. And the heathen men stayed in Thanet over the winter. And the same year [851] three-and-a-half hundred ships came into the mouth of the Thames, and stormed Canterbury, and put to flight Beorhtwulf, king of Mercia, with his army, and then went south over the Thames into Surrey; and King Aethelwulf and his son Aethelbald, with the army of Wessex, fought against them at Oak Field, and there made the greatest slaughter of a heathen raiding-army that we have ever heard tell of, and there took the victory. And the same year King Athelstan, and Ealhhere fought in ships, and struck a great raiding-army at Sandwich, and captured 9 ships and put the others to flight.

852. Here at this time Ceolred, abbot of Peterborough, and the monks leased to Wulfred the land at Sempringham, on condition that after his day that land should go into the minster, and Wulfred should give the land at Sleaford into Peterborough, and he should give every year to the minster sixty wagon-loads of wood and twelve wagon-loads of brushwood and six wagon-loads of faggots, and two casks-full of clear ale and two cattle for slaughter and six hundred loaves and ten measures of Welsh ale, and each year a horse and thirty shillings and one day's provisions. Party to this was the king Burhred and Archbishop Ceolred and Bishop Tunberht and Bishop Cenred and Bishop Ealhhun and Bishop Beorhtred and Abbot Wihtred and Abbot Werheard, Ealdorman Aethelheard, Ealdorman Hunberht and many others.

852 [853]. Here Burhred, king of Mercia, subjected the Welsh to him with the help of King Aethelwulf. And the same year Ealhhere with the inhabitants of Kent, and Huda with the Surrey men, fought

in Thanet against a heathen raiding-army; and many were killed and drowned there on either side, and the ealdormen both dead. And Burhred, king of Mercia, received the daughter of Aethelwulf, king of Wessex.

855. Here the heathen men for the first time settled in Sheppey over winter. And the same year King Aethelwulf conveyed by charter the tenth part of his land over all his kingdom, to the praise of God and his own eternal salvation. And the same year he travelled to Rome in great state, and lived there 12 months. And he received'' the daughter of Charles, king of the Franks, when he was on the way home, and came home in good health, and then 2 years afterwards passed away, and his body lies in Winchester; and he ruled 9 years. He was Egbert's offspring. And then his two sons succeeded to the kingdom,Aethelbald to the kingdom of Wessex and to Surrey, and he ruled 5 years.

860. Here King Aethelbald passed away, and his body lies at Sherborne. And Aethelberht, his brother, succeeded to the entire kingdom. And in his day a great raiding ship-army came up and destroyed Winchester. And against the raiding-army fought Ealdorman Osric with Hampshire and Ealdorman Aethelwulf with Berkshire, and put the raiding-army to flight and had possession of the place of slaughter. And that Aethelberht ruled 5 years, and his body lies at Sherborne.

865. Here the heathen raiding-army stayed in Thanet, and made peace with the inhabitants of Kent; and the inhabitants of Kent promised them money in return for that peace. And under cover of the promise of money, the raiding-army stole away by night and raided across all eastern Kent.

866 [865]. Here Aethelred, brother of Aethelberht, succeeded to the kingdom of Wessex. And the same year a great heathen raiding-army came to the land of the English and took winter-quarters from the East Anglians, and were provided with horses there, and they made peace with them.

[866]. Here the raiding-army went from East Anglia over the mouth of the Humber to York city in Northumbria; and there was great discord of the nation among themselves; and they had thrown down their king Osberht and accepted Aella, an unnatural king; and it was late in the year when they turned to making war against the raiding-army, nevertheless they gathered a great army and sought out the raiding-army at York city and broke into the city,and some of them got inside; and an immense slaughter was made of the Northumbrians there, some inside, some outside, and both the kings were killed, and the survivors made peace with the raiding-army. And the same year Bishop Ealhstan died, and he had the bishopric at Sherborne 50 years;and his body lies there in the town.

[867]. Here the same raiding-army went into Mercia to Nottingham, and took winter-quarters there. And Burhred, king of Mercia, and his councillors asked Aethelred, king of Wessex, and his brother Alfred to help them fight against the raiding-army; and then they travelled with the West Saxon army into Mercia as far as Nottingham, and met the raiding-army there in the fortification, and besieged it in there, and no heavy fight occurred, and the Mercians made peace with the raiding-army.

869. Here the raiding-army went back to York city and stayed there one year.

[869]. Here the raiding-army went across Mercia into East Anglia, and took winter-quarters at Thetford; and in that year St Edmund the king fought against them, and the Danish took the victory, and killed the king and conquered all that land, and did for all the monasteries to which they came. At the same time they came to Peterborough: burned and demolished, killed abbot and monks and all that they found there, brought it about so that what was earlier very rich was as it were nothing. And that year Archbishop Ceolnoth died.

[870]. Here the raiding-army rode to Reading in Wessex, and 3 daysafterwards two jarls rode up-country; then Ealdorman Aethelwulf met them on Englefield and fought against them there and took the victory; and one of the jarls, whose name was Sidroc, was killed there. Then 4 days later [871] King Aelthelred and Alfred, his brother, led a great army there to Reading, and fought against the raiding-army; and great slaughter was made there on either side, and Ealdorman Aethelwulf was killed, and the Danish had possession of the place of slaughter. And 4 days later King Aethelred and Alfred, his brother, fought against the whole raiding-army on Ashdown; and they were in two bands: in the one were Bagsecg and Halfdan, the heathen kings, and in the other were the jarls. And then the king Aethelred fought against the kings' force, and there the king Bagsecg was killed; and Alfred, his brother, [fought] against the jarls' force, and there Jarl Sidroc the Old was killed and Sidroc the Young and Jarl Osbern and Jarl Fraena and Jarl Harald; and both raiding-armies were put to flight, and there were many thousands of killed; and fighting went on till night. And 14 days later King Aethelred and Alfred, his brother, fought against the raiding-army at Basing, and there the Danish took the victory. And two months later Aethelred and Alfred, his brother, fought against the raiding-army at Merton; and they were in two bands, and they put both to flight and for long in the day had the victory; and there was great slaughter on either side, and the Danish had possession of the place of slaughter; and Bishop Heahmund was killed there and many good men. And after this fight a great summer-fleet came to Reading. And afterwards, after Easter, King Aethelred died, and he ruled 5 years; and his body lies at Wimborne minster.

Then his brother Alfred, Aethelwulf's offspring, succeeded to the kingdom of Wessex. And 1 month later King Alfred with a small troop fought at Wilton against the whole raiding-army, and for long in the day put them to flight, and the Danish had possession of the place of slaughter. And that year there were 9 national fights fought against the raiding-army in the kingdom to the south of the Thames, besides those forays which Alfred, the king's brother, and ealdormen and king's thegns, often rode on, which were never counted. And that year were killed 9 jarls and one king; and that year the West Saxons made peace with the raiding-army.

[871]. Here the raiding-army went from Reading to London town, and took winter-quarters there, and then the Mercians made peace with the raiding-army.

[872]. Here the raiding-army took winter-quarters at Torksey.

[873]. Here the raiding-army went from Lindsey to Repton, and there took winter-quarters, and drove the king Burhred across the sea 22 years after he had the kingdom; and conquered all that land. And he went to Rome and settled there, and his body lies in St Mary's church in the English Quarter.And the same year they granted the kingdom of Mercia to be held by Ceolwulf, a foolish king's thegn, and he swore them oaths and granted hostages, that it should be ready for them whichever day they might want it, and he himself should be ready with all who would follow him, at the service of the raiding-army.

[874]. Here the raiding-army went from Repton, and Halfdan went with some of the raiding-army into Northumbria, and took winter-quarters on the River Tyne; and the raiding-army conquered that land, and often raided among the Picts and among the Strathclyde Britons; and Guthrum and Oscytel and Anund, the three kings, went from Repton to Cambridge with a great raiding-army, and settled there for a year. And that summer [875] King Alfred went out to sea with a raiding ship-army, and fought against 7 ship-loads, and captured one of them and put the others to flight.

876 [875]. Here the raiding-army stole away from the West Saxon army into Wareham. And afterwards [876] the king made peace with the raiding-army, and they granted him as hostages the most distinguished men who were next to the king in the raiding-army, and they swore him oaths on the sacred ring, which earlier they would not do to any nation, that they would quickly go from his kingdom; and then under cover of that, they stole away from the army by night - the mounted raiding-army into Exeter. And that year Halfdan divided up the land of Northumbria; and they were ploughing and were providing for themselves. Rollo and his [men] invaded Normandy and ruled 53 years.

877 [876]. Here the raiding-army came from Wareham to Exeter, and the raiding ship-army sailed around west, and then they met a great storm at sea, and 120 ships were lost there at Swanage. And Alfred the king rode after the mounted raiding-army with the army as far as Exeter, and could not overtake them before they were in the fortress where they could not be got at. And there they granted him prime hostages, as many as he wanted to have, and swore great oaths, and then held to a good peace. And then in harvest-time [877] the raiding-army went into the land of Mercia, and some of it they divided up and some they granted to Ceolwulf.

878. Here the raiding-army stole away in midwinter after Twelfth Night to Chippenham, and over-rode and occupied the land of Wessex, and drove many of the people across the sea, and the greatest part of the others they overrode - except Alfred the king with a small troop went with difficulty through woods and into swamp-fastnesses. And that same winter a brother of Ivar and Halfdan was in Wessex in Devonshire, and he was killed there, and 800 men with him and 40 men of his war-band; and there the banner which they called 'Raven' was taken. And the Easter after, King Alfred with a small troop built a fortification at Athelney, and from that fortification, with the men of that part of Somerset nearest to it, was making war against the raiding-army. Then in the seventh week after Easter he rode to Egbert's Stone to the east of Selwood, and there came to join him all Somerset and Wiltshire and that part of Hampshire which was on this side of the sea - and were glad of him. And one day later he went from those camps to Island Wood, and one day later to Edington, and there fought against the whole raiding-army, and put it to flight, and rode after it as far as the fortification, and settled there 14 days; and then the raiding-army granted him hostages and great oaths that they would leave his kingdom, and also promised him that their king would receive baptism; and they fulfilled it. And 3 weeks later the king Guthrum came to him, one of thirty of the most honourable men who were in the raiding-army, at Aller - and that is near Athelney - and there the king received him at baptism; and his chrism-loosingwas at Wedmore; and he was 12 days with the king, and he greatly honoured him and his companions with riches.

[878]. Here the raiding-army went from Chippenham to Cirencester, and settled there for the winter. In that year a gang of vikings gathered and settled at Fulham on the Thames. And the same year the sun grew dark for one hour of the day.

[879]. Here the raiding-army went from Cirencester into East Anglia, and settled that land, and divided it up. And the same year the raiding-armywhich had settled at Fulham went across the sea to Ghent in the land of the Franks, and settled there for a year.

881. Here the raiding-army went further into the land of the Franks, and the Franks fought against them, and there the raiding-army was provided with horses after the fight.

882 (881). Here the raiding-army went up along the Meuse further into the land of the Franks, and settled there for a year. And the same year [882] King Alfred went out to sea with ships and fought against 4 ship-loads of Danish men and took two of the ships, and killed the men; and two surrendered to him, and the men were badly knocked about and wounded before they surrendered.

[882]. Here the raiding-army went up to the Scheldt to Conde, and settled there for a year. And Pope Marinus sent the wood of the Lord to King Alfred; and the same year Sigehelm and Athelstan took to Rome - and also to St Thomas in India and to St Bartholomew - the alms which King Alfred had vowed to send there when they besieged the raiding-army at London; and there, by the grace of God, they were very successful in obtaining their prayers in accordance with those vows.

[883]. Here the raiding-army went up the Somme to Amiens, and settled there for a year.

[884]. Here the aforementioned raiding-army divided into two, one to the east and the other part to Rochester, and besieged the city, and built another fortification around themselves; and they [the inhabitants], however, defended the city until [885] Alfred came from outside with an army. Then the raiding-army went to their ships and abandoned that fortification and were there deprived of their horses, and immediately the same summer departed across the sea again. The same year King Alfred sent a raiding ship-army from Kent into East Anglia. Immediately they came to the mouth of the Stour, then they met 16 ships of vikings and fought against them, and got at all the ships, and killed the men. Then when they were on their way home with the war-booty, they met a great raiding ship-army of vikings, and fought against them the same day, and the Danish had the victory. And the same year [884], before midwinter, Carl, king of the Franks, passed away - and a wild boar killed him; and one year earlier his brother passed away; he also had that West Kingdom; he passed away the year [879] in which the sun grew dark; he was the son of Charles whose daughter Aethelwulf, king of Wessex, had as queen. The same year [884] passed away the good pope Marinus, who freed the English Quarter at the request of Alfred, king of Wessex; and he sent him great gifts and part of the Cross on which Christ suffered. And the same year the raiding-army went to East Anglia, and broke the peace with King Alfred.

[885]. Here the raiding-army, which earlier to this had arrived in the east, went west again, and then up the Seine and there took winter-quarters in the town of Paris. The same year [886] King Alfred occupied London fort,and all the English race turned to him, except what was in capitivity to Danish men; and he then entrusted the fort to Ealdorman Aethelred to hold.

[886-7]. Here the raiding-army went up through the bridge at Paris, and then up along the Seine, as far as the Marne, and then up the Marne as far as Chézy; and then settled there [and] on the Yonne, two winters in those two places. And the same year [888] Charles, king of the Franks passed away; and Arnulf, his brother's son, dispossessed him of the kingdom 6 weeks before his death. And then the kingdom was divided into 5, and five kings were consecrated to it; that, however, was done with the consent of Arnulf; and they said they should to hold it from his hands because none of them was born on the paternal side, except him alone. Arnulf lived in the land to the east of the Rhine, and then Rudolf succeeded to the Middle Kingdom, and Odo to the western part, and Berengar and Guido to the land of the Lombards and to the lands on that side of the mountains; and held that in great discord, and fought two national fights, and over and again ravaged that land, and each frequently drove out the other. And the same year in which the raiding-army went out up over the bridge at Paris, Ealdorman Aethelhelm took the alms of the West Saxons and of King Alfred to Rome.

888. Here Ealdorman Beocca and Queen Aethelswith, who was King Alfred's sister, took the alms of the West Saxons and of King Alfred to Rome; and she passed away, and her body lies at Pavia. And the same year Archbishop Aethelred and Ealdorman Aethelwald passed away in the one month.

In this year there was none who travelled to Rome, except for two runners King Alfred sent with letters.

Here Abbot Beornhelm took the alms of the West Saxons and of King Alfred to Rome. And Guthrum, the northern king, whose baptismal name was Athelstan, passed away; he was King Alfred's godson, and he lived in East Anglia, and was the first to settle that land. And the same year [889] the raiding-army went from the Seine to St L6, which is between the Bretons and the Franks; and [890] the Bretons fought against them and had the victory, and drove them out into a river, and drowned many. Here Archbishop Plegmund was elected by God and all the people.

892. Here the great raiding-army about which we formerly spoke earlier, went again from the East Kingdom westward to Boulogne, and were provided with ships there so that they moved themselves over in a single journey, horses and all, and then came up into the mouth of the Lympne with two-and-a-half-hundred ships. That river-mouth is in eastern Kent, at the east end of the great wood which we call Andred. That wood is a hundred-and-twenty miles long or longer from east to west, and 30 miles broad. The river about which we spoke earlier flows out from that forest; they pulled their ships up on the river as far as the forest, 4 miles from the mouth of the estuary, and there destroyed a fortification; inside that fortress sat a few peasant men, and it was half-made.

Then immediately after that Haesten came with 80 ships into the mouth of the Thames, and made himself a fortification at Milton, and the other raiding-army [was] at Appledore. Here Wulfhere, archbishop of Northumbria, died.

901 [899]. Here King Alfred departed on 26 October; and he held that kingdom 2.8-and-a-half years. And then Edward, his son, succeeded to the kingdom.

906. Here King Edward, from necessity, confirmed peace both with the raiding-army from East Anglia and with the Northumbrians.

910. Here the English raiding-army and the Danes fought at Tettenhall,and Aethelred, leader of the Mercians, passed away, and King Edward succeeded to London town and to Oxford, and all the lands which pertained thereto. And a great raiding ship-army came here from the south, from Brittany, and raided along the Severn a lot, but they mostly all afterwards perished there.

918. Here Aethelflaed, Lady of the Mercians, passed away.

921. Here King Sihtric killed Niall, his brother.

923. Here King Raegnald won York.

924. In this year King Edward passed away and Athelstan, his son, succeeded to the kingdom.

925. Here Bishop Wulfhelm was consecrated and the same year King Edward passed away.

927. Here Athelstan drove out King Guthfrith; and here Archbishop Wulfhelm went to Rome.

928. William succeeded to the kingdom, and reigned 15 years.

933. Here the aetheling Edwin drowned at sea.

937. Here King Athelstan went to Scotland with both a raiding land-army and with a raiding ship-army and raided across much of it.

937. Here King Athelstan led an army to Brunanburh.

940. Here King Athelstan passed away, and Edmund, his brother, succeeded to the kingdom.

942. Here King Olaf passed away. And Richard the Elder succeeded to the kingdom, and reigned 52 years.

944. Here King Edmund conquered all Northumbria, and caused to flee away two royally-born men, Olaf and Raegnald.

945. Here King Edmund raided across all the land of Cumbria. [continued on p. 113}


E continued from p. in

948 [946]. Here King Edmund was stabbed, and Eadred, his brother, succeeded to the kingdom, and he immediately reduced all the land of Northumbria to his control; and the Scots granted him oaths that they would do all that he wanted.

949. Here Olaf Cuaran came to the land of Northumbria.

952. Here the Northumbrians drove out King Olaf and accepted Eric, son of Harald.

954. Here the Northumbrians drove out Eric, and Eadred succeeded to the kingdom of Northumbria.

955. Here King Eadred passed away, and Eadwig, son of Edmund, succeeded to the kingdom.

956. Here Archbishop Wulfstan passed away.

959. Here King Eadwig passed away, and Edgar, his brother, succeeded to the kingdom. In his days things prospered readily, in that he dwelled in peace for as long as he lived. And he readily merited this - did as was his duty. Far and wide he exalted God's praise and loved God's law, and improved the people's security much more than those kings who were before him within the memory of men. And God helped him too, so that kings and earls readily submitted to him, and were subjected to that which he wanted. And without battle he controlled all that he himself wanted.

He became greatly honoured wide throughout the land of the nation, for he readily honoured God's name, and deliberated God's law over and again, and promoted God's praise far and wide, and counselled all his nation wisely, very often, always continuously, for God and for the world.

One ill deed, however, he did too much, in that he loved bad, foreign habits, and brought heathen customs too fast into this land and attracted the alien here, and introduced a damaging people to this country. But God grant him that his good deeds may be greater than his ill deeds, to shield his soul on the longsome journey.

963. Here St Aethelwold was chosen by King Edgar for the bishopric in Winchester; and the archbishop of Canterbury, St Dunstan, consecrated him as bishop on the first Sunday of Advent, which was on 29 November.

In the next year after he was consecrated he founded many monasteries,and drove the clerks out of the bishopric because they would not observe any rule, and set monks there. He founded there two abbacies, one of monks the other of nuns - that was all inside Winchester. Then afterwards he came to the king Edgar [and] asked him that he would give him all the monasteries the heathen men had broken up earlier, because he wanted to restore it; and the king happily granted it. And the bishop then came first to Ely, where St Aethelthryth lies, and had the monastery made, then gave it to one of his monks who was called Byrhtnoth, then consecrated him abbot and set monks to serve God there, where formerly there were nuns; then he bought many estates from the king and made it very rich.

Afterwards the bishop Aethelwold came to the monastery which was called Peterborough, which was formerly done for by heathen people, [and] found nothing there but old walls and wild woods; then found, hidden in the old walls, writings that Abbot Hedde had earlier written, as to how King Wulfhere and Aethelred, his brother, had constructed it, and how they freed it from king, and from bishop, and from all worldly service; and how the pope Agatho confirmed it with his writ - and the archbishop Deusdedit. Then he had the monastery constructed and set there an abbot who was called Ealdwulf, and made monks there where earlier there was nothing; then came to the king and had him look at the writings which were found earlier; and the king then answered and said:

'I, Edgar, before God and before the archbishop Dunstan, today grant freedom from king and from bishop to St Peter's monastery, Peterborough, and to all the villages which pertain to it, that is, Eastfield and Dogsthorpe and Eye and Paston; and I free it thus, that no bishop have any authority there, except the abbot of the monastery. And I give the town which they call Oundle with everything that pertains thereto, that is, what they call the Eight Hundreds, and market and toll freely, so that neither king nor bishop nor earl nor sheriff have any authority there, nor any man except the abbot alone, and those he sets thereto. And at the request of the bishop Aethelwold, I give Christ and St Peter these lands, that is: Barrow, Warmington, Ashton, Kettering, Castor, Ailsworth, Walton, Werrington, Eye, Longthorpe, and a moneyer in Stamford. These lands and all the others which pertain to the monastery I declare clear, that is with 'sake and soke, toll and team, and infangenetheof'. To Christ and St Peter I give these rights and all others I declare free. And I give two parts of Whittlesey Mere, with waters and with weirs and fens, and so through Merelad straight on to the water that they call Nene, and so eastward to King's Delph. And I desire that a market should be in the same town, and that there be no other between Stamford and Huntingdon. And I desire that [the right of] toll be given thus: first from Whittlesey Mere all up to the king's toll of Norman Cross Hundreds, and backwards again from Whittlesey Mere through Merelad straight on to the Nene, and thus as that water runs to Crowland, and from Crowland to the Muscat, and from the Muscat to King's Delph and to Whittlesey Mere. And I desire that all the freedom and all the exemption that my predecessors granted, that it stand. And I writeand confirm it with the sign of Christ's cross +.'

Then the archbishop Dunstan of Canterbury answered and said: 'I ratify all the things which here are given and mentioned, and all those things that your predecessors and mine have granted. I want that it shall stand: and whosoever breaks it, I give him the curse of God and of all saints and of all ordained heads - and mine - unless he make reparation. And in acknowledgment, I give St Peter my chasuble and my stole and my robe for the service of Christ'.

'I, Oswald, Archbishop of York, agree to all these words, by the holy cross on which Christ was made to suffer. +'

'I, Aethelwold, bishop, bless all who observe this, and I excommunicate all who break this, unless he make reparation'.

Here was: Bishop Aelfstan, Bishop Aethelwulf, and Abbot Aescwig, and Abbot Osgar, and Abbot Aethelgar, and Ealdorman Aelfhere, Ealdorman iEthelwine, Byrhtnoth, Ealdorman Oslac, and many other powerful men; and all ratified it, and all signed it with Christ's token +. This was done 972 years after our Lord's birth, and in the king's 16th year.

Then the abbot Ealdwulf bought many estates, and altogether richly endowed that monastery, and was there then until Archbishop Oswald of York had passed away, and then he was chosen for archbishop. And there was immediately chosen another abbot from the same monastery, [who] was called Cenwulf; he was afterwards bishop in Winchester; and he first made the wall around the monastery, then gave that which was earlier called Medeshamstede, the name 'Stronghold'. [He] was there until they set him as bishop in Winchester. Then they chose another abbot from the same monastery, who was called Aelfsige; this Aelfsige was abbot afterwards for fifty years. He took up St Cyneburh and St Cyneswith, who lay at Castor, and St Tibba, who lay at Ryhall, and brought them to Peterborough and offered them all to St Peter on the one day, and kept [their relics] during the time he was there.

964. Here the canons were expelled from the Old Minster,

966. Here Thored, son of Gunnar, ravaged Westmorland; and the same year Oslac succeeded to the earldom.

969. Here in this year King Edgar ordered all the land of Thanet to be raided across.

970. Here the aetheling Edmund passed away.

972. Here the aetheling Edgar was consecrated as king on the Feast of Pentecost on 11 May at the Hot Baths, in the 13th year after he succeeded to the kingdom; and he was then 29 years old. And immediately after that the king led his whole raiding ship-army to Chester, and there 6 kings came to meet him, and all pledged that they would be allies on sea and on land.

975. Here departed Edgar, governor of the English, friend of the West Saxons, and protector of the Mercians. It was widely known throughout many nations over the gannet's bath, that kings honoured Edmund's offspring, far and wide submitted to the king, as was natural to him. There was no fleet so proud, nor raiding-army so strong, that fetched itself carrion among the English race, while the noble king governed the royal seat.

And here Edward, Edgar's son, succeeded to the kingdom; and then immediately in harvest-time in that same year, the star comet appeared, and then in the following year came a very great famine and very manifold disturbances throughout the English race. And Ealdorman Aelfhere ordered very many monastic institutions to be overthrown which King Edgar earlier ordered the holy bishop Aethelwold to establish. And at that time also Oslac, the famous earl, was banished from the English race.

978. Here in this year all the foremost councillors of the English race fell down from an upper floor at Calne, but the holy archbishop Dunstan alone was left standing up on a beam; and some were very injured there, and some did not escape it with their life.

979 [978]. Here King Edward was killed in the evening-time on 18 March at Corfe 'passage'; and they buried him at Wareham without any royal honours.

No worse deed for the English race was done than this was, since they first sought out the land of Britain. Men murdered him, but God exalted him. In life he was an earthly king; after death he is now a heavenly saint. His earthly relatives would not avenge him, but his Heavenly Father has much avenged him. Those earthly slayers wanted to destroy his memory upon earth, but the sublime Avenger has spread abroad his memory in the heavens and on the earth. Those who earlier would not bow to his living body, those now humbly bow the knees to his dead bones. Now we can perceive that the wisdom and deliberations of men, and their counsels, are worthless against God's purpose.

And here yEthelred succeeded to the kingdom, and very quickly after that, with great rejoicing of the councillors of the English race, was consecrated as king at Kingston.

980. Here in this year Ealdorman Aelfhere fetched the holy king's body from Wareham, and carried it with great honour to Shaftesbury.

981. Here first came 7 ships and raided Southampton.

982. Here Ealdorman Aelfhere passed away, and Aelfric succeeded to the same ealdormanship.

984. Here the holy bishop Aethelwold, father of monks, passed away; and here Edwin was consecrated as abbot for Abingdon.

985. Here Ealdorman Aelfric was driven out.

986. Here the king did for the bishopric at Rochester; and here the great pestilence among cattle first came to England.

987. Here Watchet was raided.

988. Here Goda, the Devonshire thane, was killed - and a great slaughter with him. And here the holy archbishop Dunstan left this life and travelled to the heavenly. And Bishop Aethelgar succeeded to the archbishop's seat after him; and he lived for a short time after that - no more than a year and 3 months.

989. Here Abbot Edwin passed away, and Wulfgar succeeded; and here Sigeric was ordained as archbishop.

991. Here Ipswich was raided, and very soon after that Ealdorman Byrhtnoth was killed at Maldon; and in that year it was first decided tax be paid to the Danish men because of the great terror which they wrought along the sea coast. That was at first 10 thousand pounds. Archbishop Sigeric decided on the decision.

992. Here the blessed Archbishop Oswald left this life and travelled to the heavenly, and Ealdorman Aethelwine departed in the same year. Then the king and all his councillors decided that those ships that were worth anything should be gathered to London town; and the king entrusted the army to Ealdorman Aelfric and Earl Thored and Bishop Aelfstan and Bishop Aescwig to lead, that they should try if they could to entrap the raiding-army somewhere outside. Then Ealdorman Aelfric sent and commanded the raiding-army to be warned; and then on the night before the day on which they should have come together, he scurried away from the army by night, to his own great disgrace, and the raiding-army then escaped, except for one ship which was struck there. And the raiding-army met ships from East Anglia and from London, and they made great slaughter there, and captured the ship, all armed and equipped, on which the ealdorman was. And then after Archbishop Oswald's passing away, Abbot Ealdwulf of Peterborough succeeded to the York seat and to Worcester, and Cenwulf to the abbacy at Peterborough.

993. Here in this year Bamburgh was broken down, and much war-booty taken there; and after that the raiding-army came to the Humber mouth and wrought great harm there, both in Lindsey and in Northumbria. Then a very great army was gathered; and then when they should have gone together the commanders were the first to set the example of flight: that was Fraena and Godwine and Frithugist. In the same year the king ordered Aelfgar, son of Ealdorman Aelfric, to be blinded."

994. Here in this year on the Nativity of St Mary Olaf and Swein came to London town with 4-and-ninety ships, and then they were determinedly attacking the town, and they also wanted to set it on fire, but there they suffered more harm and injury than they ever imagined that any town-dwellers would do to them. But on that [day] the holy Mother of God manifested her kind-heartedness to the town-dwellers and rescued them from their enemies. And they travelled from there and wrought the greatest harm which any raiding-army could ever do, in burning and raiding and slaughter of men, both along the sea coast in Essex and in the land of Kent and in Sussex and in Hampshire. And finally they took themselves horses, and rode widely as they wanted, and were wreaking indescribable harm. Then the king and his councillors decided to send to them, and offer tax and provisions if they would leave off their raiding, and they undertook [to do] that, and all the raiding-army came to Southampton, and there took up winter-quarters, and there they were fed from throughout all the kingdom of Wessex; and they were paid 16 thousand pounds. Then the king sent Bishop Aelfheah and Ealdorman Aethelweard after King Olaf, and meanwhile sent hostages to the ships; and they led King Olaf with great honour to Andover. And the king Aethelred received him at the bishop's hands, and gave to him royally; and then Olaf promised him - as he kept to it too - that he would never come back to the English race in hostility. Here Richard the Elder died, and Richard his son succeeded to the rule and ruled 31 years.

995. Here in this year the star comet appeared; and Archbishop Sigeric passed away.

996. Here in this year Aelfric was consecrated as archbishop for Christ Church.

997. Here in this year the raiding-army travelled round Devonshire into the mouth of the Severn, and there raided, both in Cornwall and in Wales and in Devon; then they went up at Watchet, and wrought great harm there by burning and by slaughtering of men, and after that turned back round Penwith Tail* to the south side, and then turned into the mouth of the Tamar, and then went up until they came to Lydford, and burned and killed everything that they met, and burned down Ordwulf's monastery at Tavistock, and brought indescribable war-booty with them to the ships.

998. Here the raiding-army turned eastward again, into the mouth of the Frome, and went up as widely as they wanted into Dorset. And an army was often gathered against them, but then as soon as they should have come together something always started a retreat, and they always had the victory in the end. And then another time they lay in the Isle of Wight, and meanwhile ate out of Hampshire and of Sussex.

999. Here the raiding-army again came round into the Thames, and then turned up along the Medway to Rochester. And then the Kentish army came against them, and there they determinedly joined battle; but alas! they too quickly submitted and fled, because they did not have the help they should have had; then the Danish had possession of the place of slaughter, and took horses and rode as widely as they themselves wanted, and did for and raided well nigh all the West Kentish. Then the king with his councillors decided that they should be confronted with a ship-army and also with a land-army; but when the ships were ready, there was delay from day to day, which distressed the wretched people who lay on the ships. And always whenever matters should have been advanced, the slower it was from one hour to the next, and they always let their enemies' strength increase; and always the sea was retreated from, and they always moved up after. And then in the end the ship-army achieved nothing, except the people's labour, and wasting money, and the emboldening of their enemies.

1000. Here in this year the king travelled into the land of Cumbria and ravaged very nearly all of it. And his ships turned out round Chester, and should have come to join him, but they could not; then they raided the Isle of Man. And that summer the hostile fleet had gone to Richard's kingdom.

1001. Here the raiding-army came to the mouth of the Exe and then went up to the stronghold, and were determinedly fighting there, but they very determinedly withstood them, and resolutely. Then they turned through the countryside, and did just as they were accustomed: killed and burned. Then there was gathered an immense army from the Devon people and Somers-eters, and then they came together at Pinhoe; and then as soon as they joined battle the English army gave way and they made great slaughter there, and then rode over the countryside; and each succeeding occasion was always worse than the last; and they brought much war-booty with them to the ships, and turned from there into the Isle of Wight, and there travelled about just as they themselves wanted, and nothing withstood them. No raiding ship-army on sea nor land-army dared approach them, however far inland they went. In every way it was a heavy time, because they never left off their evil.

1002. Here in this year the king and his councillors decided that they should pay tax to the fleet and make peace with them, on condition they should leave off from their evil deeds. Then the king sent Ealdorman Leofsige to the fleet and then he, at the command of the king and his councillors, arranged a truce with them, and that they should receive provisions and tax. And they undertook that, and they were paid 2.4 thousand pounds. Then in the middle of this Ealdorman Leofsige killed Aefic, the king's high-reeve, and the king then banished him from the country. And in the same spring the Lady, Richard's daughter, came here to the land. In the same summer Archbishop Ealdwulf passed away, and in that year the king ordered all the Danish men who were among the English race to be killed on Brice's Day, because it was made known to the king that they wanted to ensnare his life - and afterwards all his councillors - and have his kingdom afterwards.

1003. Here Exeter was broken down through the French churl Hugh whom the Lady had set as her reeve; and the raiding-army completely did for the town and took great war-booty there. Then a very great army was gathered from Wiltshire and from Hampshire, and were very resolutely going towards the raiding-army; then Ealdorman Aelfric should have led the army, but he took to his old tricks: as soon as they were so close at hand that each of them looked on the other, then he pretended to be ill, and began to retch so as to vomit, and said that he was taken ill, and thus deceived the people that he should have led. As the saying goes: 'When the commander weakens then the whole raiding army is greatly hindered'. Then when Swein saw that they were not resolute, and all dispersed, he led his raiding-army into Wilton and raided and burned down the town, and then went to Salisbury and from there back to the sea, travelled to where he knew his 'wave-stallions' were.

1004. Here Swein came with his fleet to Norwich, and completely raided and burned down the town. Then Ulfcytel with the councillors in East Anglia decided that it would be better that they buy peace from the enemy before they did too much harm in the country, because they came unexpectedly and he had not had time in which he could gather his army. Then under cover of the truce which should have been between them, the raiding-army stole up from the ships and turned their course to Thetford. Then when Ulfcytel realised that, he sent that they should chop up the ships - but those he thought of failed; and then he secretly gathered his army as quickly as he could. And the raiding-army then came to Thetford, within 3 weeks of their earlier raiding Norwich, and were inside there one night, and raided and burned down the town. Then in the morning, when they wanted to go to the ships, then Ulfcytel came up with his troop and they determinedly joined battle there, and a great slaughter fell on either side. There the chief men of the East Anglian people were killed, but if they had been up to full strength they would never have got back to their ships, as they themselves said.

1005. Here in this year there was the great famine throughout the English race, such that no-one ever remembered one so grim before; and this year the [enemy] fleet turned from this country to Denmark - and let little time elapse before it came back.

1006. Here Archbishop Aelfric passed away, and Bishop Aelfheah succeeded him to the arch-seat. And Bishop Beorhtwold succeeded to the authority in Wiltshire; and Wulfgeat was deprived of all his territory; and Wulfheah and Ufegeat were blinded, and Ealdorman Aelfhelm was killed;and Bishop Cenwulf passed away. And then after midsummer the Danish fleet came to Sandwich, and did all just as they were accustomed: raided and burned and killed as they travelled. Then the king ordered the whole nation from Wessex and from Mercia to be called out, and all harvest-time they lay away on a campaign against the raiding-army, but it did not achieve any more than it often did before. Despite all this, the raiding-army travelled just where it wanted, and the campaign caused the local people every kind of harm, so that neither the native raiding-army nor the foreign raiding-army did them any good!

Then when it drew near to winter, the army travelled home, and after Martinmas the raiding-army came to its secure base in the Isle of Wight,and there provided themselves everywhere whatever they needed. And then towards midwinter they took themselves to their prepared depots, out through Hampshire into Berkshire at Reading; and they did, in their custom, ignited their beacons as they travelled; and travelled then to Wallingford and scorched it all up; and then turned along Ashdown to Cwichelm's Barrow, and there awaited the boasted threats, because it had often been said that if they sought out Cwichelm's Barrow they would never get to the sea. Then they turned homewards by another route. Then the army were assembled there at the Kennet, and there they joined battle; and [the Danes] soon brought that troop to flight, and afterwards carried their war-booty to the sea. There the people of Winchester could see the raiding-army, proud and not timid, when they went by their gates to the sea, and fetched themselves provisions and treasures from over 50 miles from the sea.

The king had then gone over the Thames, into Shropshire, and took his entertainment there in the midwinter season. Then there arose so great a terror of the raiding-army that no-one could think or plan how they should be got out of the country, or this country guarded against them, because they had severely marked every shire in Wessex with burning and with raiding. The king began to plan earnestly with his councillors as to what they all thought most advisable as to how this country might be protected before it was entirely done for. Then the king and his councillors decided that, though it were hateful to them all, tax must needs be paid to the for the good of the entire nation. Then the king sent to the raiding-army and ordered it to be made known to them that he wished there to be a truce between them, and that they should be granted tax and provisions; and they all accepted that, and they were provisioned throughout the English race.

1007. Here in this year the tax that was paid to the hostile raiding-army was 30 thousand pounds. And in this year also Eadric was set as ealdorman in the kingdom of the Mercians.

1008. Here the king ordered that they should determinedly build ships all over England: that is, one warship from three hundred and 10 hides and from 8 hides a helmet and mailcoat.

1009. Here in this year the ships about which we spoke earlier were ready, and from what books tell us, there were more of them than there had ever earlier been in England in the days of any king. And they brought them all together to Sandwich, and should lie there and guard this country against every foreign raiding-army. But as yet we had neither the luck nor the honour that the ship-army were useful to this country, any more than it often was before. Then at this same time or a little before, it happened that Beorhtric, the brother of the ealdorman Eadric, accused Prince Wulfnoth the South Saxon, to the king, and he then turned away and enticed ships to him until he had 20, and he then raided everywhere along the south coast, and wrought every kind of harm. Then it was made known to the ship-army that they could easily be surrounded if one wanted to set about it. Then that Beorhtric took with him eighty ships, and thought that he would make a great reputation for himself in that he would get Wulfnoth dead or alive. But then when they were on their way there, such a wind came against them as no man remembered earlier, and battered and thrashed to pieces and cast ashore all the ships. And that Wulfnoth came immediately and burned the ships. When this was known to the other ships where the king was, how the others had fared, then it was as if everything was in confusion, and the king took himself home - and the ealdorman and the chief councillors - and thus lightly abandoned the ships. And then the people who were on the ships conveyed the ships back to London, and thus lightly let the whole nation's labour waste; and the deterrent in which the whole English race had confidence, was no better [than that]. Then when this ship-army had finished thus, there came to Sandwich immediately after Lammasthe immense hostile raiding-army, and immediately turned their course to Canterbury and would quickly have taken the town if they had not the more quickly begged them for peace; and all the East Kentish made peace with the raiding-army, and granted them 3 thousand pounds. And then immediately after that the raiding-army turned about until they came to the Isle of Wight,and raided and burned, as their custom was, everywhere in Sussex and in Hampshire and also in Berkshire. Then the king ordered the whole nation to be called out, in order to guard against them on all sides, but nevertheless they travelled just where they wanted. Then on one occasion the king got in front of them with all the army when they wanted [to get to] the ships, and everybody was ready to attack them; but it was Ealdorman Eadric who hindered it, as it always was. Then, after the Feast of St Martin they travelled back towards Kent, and took for themselves winter-quarters on the Thames, and lived off Essex and off the shires which were nearest on both sides of the Thames, And they often attacked London town, but praise be to God that it still stands sound, and they always fared badly there. Then, after midwinter, they took a route up out through the Chilterns, and so to Oxford, and burned down the town, and then carried on along both sides of the Thames towards the ships. Then when they were warned that there was an army against them at London, they turned over at Staines; and thus travelled the whole winter, and that spring [1010] they were in Kent, repairing their ships.

1010. Here after Easter in this year the aforesaid raiding-army came to East Anglia, and turned up at Ipswich, and went straight to where they had heard that Ulfcytel was with his army. This was on the first day of the Ascension of the Lord. And then the East Anglians immediately fled; then Cambridgeshire firmly stood against [them]. There was killed Athelstan, the king's son-in-law, and Oswy' and his son, and Wulfric, Leofwine's son, and Eadwig, Aefic's brother, and many other good thegns and countless people. It was Thurcytel 'Mare's Head' that first started the flight, and the Danes had possession of the place of slaughter, and then were horsed and thereafter had possession of East Anglia, and for 3 months raided and burned that country; they even travelled into the wild fens, and they killed men and cattle, and burned throughout the fens, and burned down Thetford and Cambridge, and afterwards turned south again onto the Thames; and the horsed men rode towards the ships, and afterwards quickly turned westwards into Oxfordshire, and from there into Buckinghamshire, and so along the Ouse until they came to Bedford, and so on until Tempsford; and always burned as they travelled. Then they turned back to the ships with their war-booty; and when they were dispersing to the ships, then the army should have been back out, in case they wanted to go inland. The army was travelling home then; and when they [the enemy] were in the east, then the army was kept in the west: and when they were in the south, then our army was in the north. Then all the councillors were ordered to the king, and it had then to be decided how this country should be defended. But whatever was then decided, it did not stand for even one month. In the end there was no head man who wanted to gather an army, but each fled as best as he could; nor even in the end would one shire help another. Then before the Feast of St Andrew,the raiding-army came to Northampton and immediately burned down the market-town and round about there seized for themselves as much as they wanted, and from there turned over the Thames into Wessex, and so on towards Cannings Marsh, and burned it all. Then, when they had gone as far as they wanted, they came at midwinter to the ships.

1011. Here in this year the king and his councillors sent to the raiding-army, and begged peace, and promised them tax and provisions on condition that they leave off their raiding.

They had then overrun: (i) East Anglia and (ii) Essex and (iii) Middlesex and (iv) Oxfordshire and (v) Cambridgeshire and (vi) Hertfordshire and (vii) Buckinghamshire and (viii) Bedfordshire and (x) half Huntingdonshire, and to the south of the Thames all the Kentish and South Saxons and the Hastings district and Surrey and Berkshire and Hampshire and much in Wiltshire.

All these misfortunes befell us through lack of decision, in that they were not offered tax in time; but when they had done great evil, then a truce and peace was made with them. And nonetheless for all this truce and peace and tax, they travelled about everywhere in bands and raided and roped up and killed our wretched people. And in this year, between the Nativity of St Mary and Michaelmas they besieged Canterbury, and got inside through treachery, because Aelfmaer, whose life Archbishop Aelfheah had earlier saved, betrayed Canterbury to them. And there they seized the archbishop Aelfheah, and Aelfweard the king's reeve, and Abbot Leofwine, and Bishop Godwine - and they let Abbot Aelfmaer go free. And they seized all ordained people, both men and women, in there - and it is impossible for any man to say how much of the people that was - and afterwards were in the town as long as they wanted; and when they had throughly searched it, then they turned to the ships, and led the archbishop with them.

Then he who was earlier the head of the English race and of Christendom was a roped thing. There wretchedness might be seen where earlier was seen bliss, in that wretched town from where there first came to us Christendom and bliss before God and before the world.

And they kept the archbishop with them up until the time when they martyred him.

1012. Here in this year, there came to London town Ealdorman Eadric and all the foremost councillors of the English race, ordained and lay, before Easter - that Easter Day was on the 13 April. And they were there until after Easter, until all the tax was paid - that was 8 thousand pounds. Then on the Saturday the raiding-army became much stirred up against the bishop, because he did not want to offer them any money, and forbade that anything might be granted in return for him. Also they were very drunk, because there was wine brought from the south. Then they seized the bishop, led him to their 'hustings on the Saturday in the octave of Easter, and then pelted him there with bones and the heads of cattle; and one of them struck him on the head with the butt of an axe, so that with the blow he sank down and his holy blood fell on the earth, and sent forth his holy soul to God's kingdom And in the morning the bishops Eadnoth and Aelfhun and the inhabitants of the town took up the holy body, and carried it to London with all honour and buried it in St Paul's minster, and there now God reveals the holy martyr's powers. Then when that tax was paid, and oaths of peace sworn, the raiding-army dispersed as widely as it had been gathered earlier. Then 45 ships from the raiding-army submitted to the king, and promised him that they would guard this country, and he would feed and clothe them.

1013. In the year after the archbishop was martyred, the king set Bishop Lyfing in the arch-seat of Canterbury; and in the same year, before the month of August, King Swein came with his fleet to Sandwich, and very quickly turned round East Anglia into the mouth of the Humber, and so upwards along the Trent until he came to Gainsborough. And then Earl Uhtred and all Northumbria immediately submitted to him, and all the people in Lindsey, and afterwards the people of the Five Boroughs, and quickly after, all the raiding-army to the north of Watling Street; and he was granted hostages from every shire. Then after he recognised that all the people had submitted to him, he ordered that his raiding-army should be provisioned and horsed; then he turned southward with his whole army, and entrusted his ships and the hostages to Cnut, his son. And after he came over Watling Street, they wrought the greatest evil that any raiding-army could do, then turned to Oxford, and the inhabitants of the town immediately submitted and gave hostages - and from there to Winchester, and they did the same; then from there they turned eastwards to London, and a great part of his people was drowned in the Thames, because they did not look out for any bridge. Then when he came to the town, the inhabitants of the town would not submit, but held out against them with full battle because King Aethelred was inside, and Thurkil with him. Then King Swein turned from there to Wallingford, and so over the Thames westward to Bath, and settled there with his army. And Ealdorman Aethelmser came there and the western thegns with him, and all submitted to Swein and gave hostages. Then when he had travelled thus far, he turned northward to his ships, and the whole nation had him as full king. And after that the town inhabitants in London submitted and gave hostages, because they were afraid he would do for them. Then Swein demanded full payment and provisions for his raiding-army for the winter, and Thurkil demanded the same for the raiding-army that lay at Greenwich; and despite that, they raided as often as they wanted. Then nothing did this nation any good, neither in the south nor in the north. Then for some time the king was with the fleet in the Thames, and the Lady then turned across the sea to her brother Richard, and Aelfsige, abbot of Peterborough, with her. And the king sent Bishop Aelfhun across the sea with the aethelings Edward and Alfred in order that he should look after them. And then at midwinter the king turned from the fleet to the Isle of Wight, and was there for the season; and after the season turned across the sea to Richard, and was there with him until the happy event of Swein's death occurred.

And during the time the Lady was beyond the sea with her brother, Aelfsige, abbot of Peterborough, who was with her there, went to the monastery which is called Bonneval, where the body of St Florentine lay, [and] found there a wretched place, wretched abbot and wretched monks, because they had been ravaged; then bought from the abbot and from the monks there St Florentine's body - all but the head - for 5 hundred pounds; and then when he came back offered it to Christ and St Peter.

1014. Here in this year Swein ended his days at Candlemas, 2 February; and the fleet all chose Cnut for king. Then all the councillors, both ordained and lay, advised that King Aethelred should be sent for, and declared that no lord was dearer to them than their natural lord - if he would govern them more justly than he did before. Then the king sent his son Edward here with his messengers, and ordered [them] to greet all his nation, and said that he would be a gracious lord to them, and would improve each of the things which they all hated, and each of those things that were done or declared against him should be forgiven, on condition that they all resolutely and without treachery turned to him. And full friendship was secured with word and pledge on either side, and [they] declared every Danish king outlawed from England for ever. Then during that spring King Aethelred came home to his own people, and he was gladly received by them all. And then, after Swein was dead, Cnut settled with his raiding-army in Gainsborough until Easter, and the people in Lindsey came to an agreement with him that they should provide him with horses and afterwards all go together and raid. Then, before they were ready, King /Ethelred came there with the whole army into Lindsey, and then all human kind that could be got at were raided and burned and killed. Cnut himself went out with his fleet - and thus the wretched people were betrayed through him - and then turned southwards until he came to Sandwich, and there put ashore the hostages which were granted to his father, and cut off their hands and their noses. And besides all these evils, the king ordered the raiding-army that lay at Greenwich to be paid 21 thousand pounds. And in this year on St Michael's Eve, that great sea-flood came widely throughout this country, and ran further inland than it ever did before, and drowned many settlements and a countless number of human beings.

1015. In this year was the great assembly at Oxford, and there Ealdorman Eadric betrayed Siferth and Morcar, the foremost thegns in the Seven Boroughs: lured them into his chamber, and in there they were killed dishonourably. And the king then seized all their property, and ordered Siferth's widow to be seized and brought inside Malmesbury. Then after a short while, the aetheling Edmund travelled and took the woman against the king's will, and had her for wife. Then, before the Nativity of St Mary, the aetheling travelled from the west, north into the Five Boroughs, and immediately rode into all Siferth's territory, and Morcar's, and all that people submitted to him. And then at the same time King Cnut came to Sandwich, and immediately turned around the land of Kent into Wessex, until he came to the mouth of the Frome, and then raided in Dorset and in Wiltshire and in Somerset. The king then lay sick at Cosham.' Then Ealdorman Eadric gathered an army - and the astheling Edmund in the north; then when they came together, the ealdorman wanted to betray the aetheling, and therefore they parted without a fight, and retreated from their enemies. And then Ealdorman Eadric enticed 40 ships from the king, and then submitted to Cnut. And the West Saxons submitted and gave hostages, and provided the raiding-army with horses, and it was there until midwinter.

1016. Here in this year King Cnut came with his raiding-army of 160 ships, and Ealdorman Eadric with him, over the Thames into Mercia at Cricklade, and then turned into Warwickshire, during the midwinter festival, and raided and burned and killed all that they came to. Then the aetheling Edmund began to gather an army; then when the army was assembled, nothing would suit them but that the king were there and that they have the help of the garrison from London. Then they left off the campaign and each man took himself home. Then after the festival,the army was ordered again, on full penalty, that each man who was fit should go forth; then the king in London was sent to, and asked that he come to join the army with the help which he could gather. Then when they all came together, it did not achieve any more than it often did before. Then when it was made known to the king that one who should have been of help to him wanted to betray him, [he] left the army and turned back to London.

Then the aetheling Edmund rode to Northumbria to Earl Uhtred, and everybody supposed that they wanted to assemble an army against King Cnut; then they travelled into Staffordshire and into Shrewsbury and to Chester and they raided on their [own] side and Cnut on his; and turned himself then out through Buckinghamshire into Bedfordshire, and from there to Huntingdonshire, along the fen to Stamford, and then into Lincolnshire, from there to Nottinghamshire, and so to Northumbria towards York. Then when Uhtred learned this, he left off his raiding and hastened northwards, and then of necessity submitted, and all the Northumbrians with him; and he gave hostages - and nevertheless he was killed, and Thurcytel, Nafena's son, with him. And then after that, King Cnut set Eric as earl in Northumbria just as Uhtred was, and afterwards turned himself southwards another way, wholly to the west. And all the raiding-army then came to the ships before Easter, and the aetheling Edmund turned to London to his father; and then, after Easter, the king Cnut turned towards London with all his ships.

Then it happened that, before the ships came, the king Aethelred passed away. He ended his days on St George's Day, after great toil and difficulties in his life. And then, after his end, all the councillors who were in London, and the garrison chose Edmund for king, and he resolutely defended his kingdom for as long as his time was.

Then at the Rogation Days the [Danish] ships came to Greenwich, and within a little while turned to London; and then dug a great ditch on the south side and dragged their ships to the west side of the bridge, and afterwards bedyked the town around so that no one could get in or out, and regularly attacked the town, but they resolutely withstood them. King Edmund had gone out then before that, and then rode into Wessex, and all the people submitted to him; and quickly after that he fought against the raiding-army at Penselwood near Gillingham, and he fought another fight after midsummer at Sherston, and there a great slaughter fell on either side, and the raiding-armies themselves broke off the fight. And Ealdorman Eadric and Aelfmeer Darling were helping the raiding-army against King Edmund. And then for the 3rd time he gathered an army, and travelled to London and rescued the garrison and drove the raiding-army to the ships. And then it was two days later that the king turned over at Brentford, and fought against the raiding-army and put them to flight; and there many of the English people were drowned through their own carelessness when they travelled in front of the army and wanted to seize loot. And after that the king turned to Wessex and assembled his army. Then the raiding-army immediately turned to London and besieged the town, and attacked it strongly both by water and by land, but the Almighty God rescued it.

After that the raiding-army turned away from London with their ships into the Orwell, and there went inland and travelled into Mercia, and killed and burned whatsoever they came across, as was their custom, and provided themselves with supplies, and they drove both the ships and their herds to the Medway. Then for the 4th time King Edmund assembled the entire English nation and travelled over the Thames at Brentford, and travelled into Kent, and the raiding-army fled before him with their horses into Sheppey, and the king killed as many of them as he could overtake. And Ealdorman Eadric then turned to join the king at Aylesford.There was no more unwise decision than this was.

The raiding-army turned back up into Essex and travelled into Mercia and did for all that it travelled over. Then, when the king learned that the raiding-army was inland, he assembled the entire the English nation for the 5th time and travelled behind them and overtook them in

Essex at the hill which is called Ashingdon, and there resolutely joined battle.Then Ealdorman Eadric did as he so often did before, first started the flight -with the Magonsaete - and thus betrayed his royal lord and the whole nation. There Cnut had the victory and won himself all England. There was killed Eadnoth, and Abbot Wulfsige, and Ealdorman Aelfric, and Ealdorman Godwine, Ulfcytel from East Anglia, and Aethelweard, son of Ealdorman Aethelsige, and all the chief men in the English race.

Then after this fight King Cnut turned inland with his raiding-army to Gloucestershire, where he heard tell that Edmund the king was. Then Ealdorman Eadric and the councillors who were there advised that the kings make a pact between them; and they granted hostages between them, and the kings came together at Ola's Island, and there affirmed their friendship, both with pledge and with oath, and set the payment for the raiding-army; and with this pact they parted, and King Edmund succeeded to Wessex and Cnut to Mercia.

Then the raiding-army turned to the ships with the things they had seized, and the inhabitants of London made a truce with the raiding-army and bought peace from them; and the raiding-army brought their ships to London, and took winter-quarters for themselves in there.

Then, on St Andrew's Day, Edmund the king passed away, and is buried with his grandfather Edgar in Glastonbury. And that same year Wulfgar, abbot in Abingdon, passed away and Aethelsige succeeded.

1017. Here in this year King Cnut succeeded to the whole kingdom of the English race, and divided it in four: Wessex for himself, and East Anglia for Thurkil, and Mercia for Eadric, and Northumbria for Eric. And in this year also, Ealdorman Eadric was killed, and Northman, son of Ealdorman Leofwine, and Aethelweard, son of Aethelmaer the Stout, and Beorhtric, son of Aelfheah in Devonshire. And King Cnut put to flight the aetheling Eadwig,and Eadwig, 'the ceorls' king'. And then before 1 August the king ordered the widow of the former king Aethelred, Richard's daughter, to be fetched to him as queen.

1018. In this year the tax was rendered over all England: that was in all 72 thousand pounds, without that which the townspeople in London paid: 11 thousand pounds. And then some of the raiding-army travelled to Denmark, and 40 ships were left with the king Cnut. And at Oxford Danes and English were agreed. And here Abbot Aethelsige passed away in Abingdon, and Aithelwine succeeded.

1019 [1020]. Here King Cnut turned to Denmark, and dwelt there all winter.

1020. Here King Cnut came to England; and then at Easter there was a great assembly in Cirencester; then Ealdorman Aethelweard was outlawed. And in this year the king went to Ashingdon; and Archbishop Lyfing passed away; and in that same year Aethelnoth, a monk and dean at Christ Church, was there ordained as bishop.

1021. Here in this year, at Martinmas, King Cnut outlawed Earl Thurkil.

1022. Here King Cnut went out with his ships to Wight. And Bishop Aethelnoth went to Rome, and was received there with great honour by the pope Benedict, and [he] put his pallium on him with his own hands, and reverently consecrated him as archbishop. And afterwards, with the pallium, he celebrated mass there as the pope directed him, and after that feasted with the pope; and afterwards with full blessing turned home. And Abbot Leofwine, who had been unjustly driven from Ely, was his companion; and there, as the pope instructed him, cleared himself of everything said against him, on witness of the archbishop and all the company that was with him.

1023. Here Archbishop Wulfstan passed away, and Aelfric succeeded;and the same year Archbishop Aethelnoth conveyed the relics of St Aelfheah, the archbishop, to Canterbury from London.

1024. Here Richard the Second died. Richard, his son, reigned about one year, and after him Robert, his brother, reigned 8 years.

1025. Here King Cnut went to Denmark with ships to the battle-place at the Holy River, and Ulf and Eilaf came against [him] and a very great raiding-army, both a land raiding-army and a ship raiding-army from the Swedish nation, and there many men perished on King Cnut's side, both of Danish men and of English; the Swedes had possession of the place of slaughter.

1028. Here King Cnut went from England to Norway with fifty ships, and drove King Olaf from the land, and appropriated that land for himself.

1029. Here King Cnut came back home to England.

1030. Here King Olaf came back into Norway, and that people gathered against him and fought with him, and he was killed there.

1031 [1027]. Here Cnut went to Rome; and in the same year he went to Scotland, and Malcolm, the king of Scots, submitted to him - and two other kings, Maelbeth and Iehmarc. Count Robert died on a pilgrimage, and King William succeeded as a cbild.

1032. Here in this year appeared that wild-fire such as no man remembered before, and also it did damage everywhere in many places. In the same year Aelfsige, bishop in Winchester, passed away, and Aelfwine, the king's priest, succeeded to it.

1033. Here in this year Merehwit, bishop in Somerset, passed away, and he is buried in Glastonbury.

1034. Here Bishop Aethelric passed away.

1036 [1035]. Here Cnut passed away at Shaftesbury, and he is buried in Winchester in the Old Minster. And he was king over all England for very nearly 20 years. And soon after his passing, there was a meeting of all the councillors at Oxford, and Earl Leofric and almost all the thegns north of the Thames, and the men of the fleet in London, chose Harold as regent of all England, for himself and his brother Harthacnut who was in Denmark. And Earl Godwine and all the foremost men in Wessex opposed it just as long as they could, but they could not contrive anything against it.And then it was decided that Aelfgifu, Harthacnut's mother, should settle in Winchester with the king her son's housecarls, and hold all Wessex in hand for him; and Earl Godwine was their most loyal man. Some men said of Harold that he was son of King Cnut and Aelfgifu, daughter of Ealdorman Aelfhelm, but to many men it seemed quite unbelievable; nevertheless he was full king over all England.

1037. Here Aelfgifu, King Cnut's widow, was driven out; she was King Harthacnut's mother. And she sought refuge of Baldwin by the south sea, and he gave her a dwelling in Bruges, and he protected and kept herfor as long as she was there.

1038 Here, on 1 November, Archbishop Aethelnoth passed away, and shortly afterwards Aethelric, bishop in Sussex, and then before Christmas Beorhtheah, bishop in Worcestershire, and quickly afterwards Aelfric, bishop in East Anglia. And then Bishop Eadsige succeeded to the archbishopric, and Grimcytel to that in Sussex, and Bishop Lyfing to Worcestershire and to Gloucestershire.

[1040]. Here King Harold passed away in Oxford on 17 March, and he was buried at Westminster; and he ruled England for 4 years and 16 weeks. And in his days 16 ships were paid at 8 marks each rowlock, just was earlier done in King Cnut's days. And in this same year King Harthacnut came to Sandwich, 7 days before midsummer, and he was immediately received by both English and by Danes, though afterwards his advocates severely paid for it when it was decided that [his] 62 ships be paid at 8 marks each rowlock.And in this same year the sester of wheat went to 5 5 pence and even further.

[1041]. Here the raider-money was paid: that was 21 thousand and 99 pounds; and then 11 thousand and 48 pounds was paid to 32 ships. And in this same year Edward, King Aethelred's son, came here to this land from a foreign country. He was the brother of King Harthacnut; they were both sons of i£lfgifu, who was the daughter of Earl Richard.

[1042]. Here King Harthacnut passed away at Lambeth on 8 June; and he was king over all England for two years, all but 10 days; and he is buried in the Old Minster in Winchester with King Cnut, his father. And before he was buried, all the people chose Edward as king in London - may he hold it as long as God grants him! And all that year was a very heavy time in many and various ways: both in bad weather and crops of the earth; and during this year more cattle died than anyone remembered before, both through various diseases and through bad weather. In this same time passed away Aelfsige, abbot of Peterborough, and Earnwig the monk was chosen as abbot because he was a very good man and very sincere.

[1043]. Here Edward was consecrated as king in Winchester on Easter Day with great honour: and Easter was then on 3 April. Archbishop Eadsige consecrated him, and fully instructed him before all the people, and fully admonished him as to his own need and that of the people. And Stigand the priest was blessed as bishop for East Anglia. And quickly afterwards the king had brought into his hands all the lands which his mother owned, and took from her all she owned in gold and in silver and in untold things, because earlier she had kept it from him too firmly.

1043 [1044]. Here Archbishop Eadsige left that bishopric because of his infirmity and blessed Siward, abbot of Abingdon, as bishop to it by leave and counsel of the king and Earl Godwine. Otherwise it was known to few men before it was done because the archbishop thought that, if more men knew about it, some other man whom he trusted and favoured less would ask or buy it. And in this [year] was a very great famine over the land of the English, and corn as dear as anyone remembered before, so that the sester of wheat went to 60 pence and even further. And the same year the king went out to Sandwich with 3 5 ships; and Athelstan, the sacristan, succeeded to the abbacy at Abingdon; and Stigand succeeded to his bishopric.

1043 [1045]. Here King Edward took the daughter of Earl Godwine as his queen. And in this same year passed away Bishop Beorhtwold; and he held the bishopric for 38 years, and the king's priest Hereman succeeded to the bishopric. And in this year, at Christmas on St Stephen's Day, Wulfric was consecrated as abbot of St Augustine's by leave of the king and Abbot Aelfstan - because of his great infirmity.

1044 [1046]. Here passed away Lyfing, bishop in Devonshire, and Leofric, who was the king's priest, succeeded to it. In this same year, on 5 July, Abbot Aelfstan passed away at St Augustine's. And in this same year Osgod Clapawas put to flight.

1045 [1047]. Here Grimcytel, bishop in Sussex, passed away, and the king's priest Heca succeeded to it. And in this year passed away Aelfwine, bishop in Winchester, on 29 August, and Stigand, bishop in the north, succeeded to it. And in the same year Earl Swein travelled out to Baldwin's land to Bruges, and lived there all winter, and then towards summer went out.

1046 [1047]. Battle at Val-es-Dunes.

Here [1048] passed away Athelstan, abbot in Abingdon, and Sparrowhawk, a monk from Bury St Edmund's, succeeded. And in this same year Bishop Siward passed away, and Archbishop Eadsige again succeeded to all the bishopric. And in this same year Lothen and Yrling came to Sandwich with 25 ships, and there took untold war-booty, in men and in gold and in silver, such that no-one knew what it all was. And then [they] turned around Thanet, and wanted to do the same there, but the local people resolutely withstood and kept them both from landing and from water, and completely put them to flight from there. And they turned from there to Essex, and raided there and took men and whatever they could find, and then turned east to Baldwin's land, and sold there what they had looted, and afterwards travelled east from where they came earlier.

1046 [1049]. Here in this year was the great synod at Rheims; there was there: the pope Leo, and the archbishop of Burgundy, and the archbishop of Besancon, and the archbishop of Treves, and the archbishop of Rheims, and many men thereto, both ordained and lay. And King Edward sent there Bishop Duduc and Wulfric, abbot of St Augustine's, and Abbot Aelfwine, that they should report to the king what was decided there for Christendom. And in this same year King Edward travelled out to Sandwich with a great raiding ship-army. And Earl Swein came into Bosham with 7 ships and made peace with the king, and he was promised that he would be entitled to all those things which he formerly possessed. Then Earl Harold, his brother, and Earl Beorn objected that he should not be entitled to any of the things which the king had granted them; but he was set 4 days safe-conduct back to his ships. Then during that, it happened that word came to the king that hostile ships lay to the west and were raiding. Then Earl Godwine turned around west with z of the king's ships (Harold commandedthe one and Tostig his brother, the other) and 42 ships of local men. Then Earl Beorn took over the king's ship which Earl Harold earlier commanded; then they turned west to Pevensey and lay there weather-bound. Then within 2 days Earl Swein came there and spoke with his father and with Earl Beorn, and asked Beorn that he should go with him to Sandwich, to the king, and help him to the king's friendship, and he agreed to this. They then turned as though they meant to go to the king; then as they rode, Swein asked him that he should travel with him to his ships - told how his sailors would turn from him unless he came there very quickly. Then they both turned to where his ships lay. Then when they came there, Earl Swein asked him that he should go on ship with him. He firmly refused for long until his sailors seized him and threw him into the boat, and bound him and rowed to the ship and put him thereon, hoisted their sail and ran west to Axmouth; and kept him with them until they killed him, and took the body and buried it in a certain church. And then his friends and men of the fleet came from London and took him up, and conveyed him to Winchester to the Old Minster, and he is buried there with King Cnut, his uncle. And Swein then turned east to Baldwin's land, and stayed there all winter in Bruges under his complete protection.

And in the same year passed away Eadnoth, bishop in the north, and Ulf was set as bishop.

1047 [1050]. Here in this year was a great meeting in London at mid-Lent,and 9 of the fleet-men's ships were dismissed and five were left behind.

And in this same year Jarl Swein came into England.

And in this same year was the great synod in Rome, and King Edward sent there Bishop Hereman and Bishop Aldred, and they came there on Easter Eve. And the pope had a synod again in Vercelli; and Bishop Ulf came to that, and if he had not given very costly gifts they were well near to breaking his staff because he did not know how to do his duties as well as he should. And in this year Archbishop Eadsige passed away on 29 October.

1048 [1051]. Here in this year in spring King Edward set Robert, in London, as archbishop for Canterbury; and the same spring he went to Rome for his pallium, and the king gave Sparrowhawk, abbot of Abingdon that bishopric in London; and the king gave Bishop Rudolf, his relative, that abbacy. Then the archbishop came from Rome one day before the eve of St Peter's Day, and occupied his archbishop's seat at Christ Church on St Peter's Day, and immediately turned to the king. Then Abbot Sparrowhawk came to him on the way with the king's writ and seal to the effect that he would ordain him as bishop for London. Then the archbishop refused and said that the pope had forbidden it him. Then the abbot turned back to the archbishop again about it, and begged for this ordination as bishop, and the archbishop resolutely kept it from him, and said that the pope had forbidden it him. Then the abbot turned to London, and all that summer and that autumn occupied the bishopric which the king had earlier granted him with his full consent.

And then Eustace came from beyond the sea soon after the bishop, and turned to the king and spoke with him about what he wanted, and then turned homeward. When he came east to Canterbury, he and his men had a meal there and turned to Dover. Then when he was some miles or more this side of Dover, he put on his mailcoat, and all his companions, and went to Dover. Then when they came there they wanted to take quarters where they themselves liked; then one of his men came and wanted to lodge at the home of a certain householder against his will, and wounded the householder, and the householder killed the other. Then Eustace got up on his horse, and his companions upon theirs, and travelled to the householder and killed him upon his own hearth, and then turned up towards the town and both inside and outside killed more than 20 men; and the townsmen killed 19 men on the other side and wounded they knew not how many. And Eustace escaped with a few men, and turned back to the king and gave a one-sided account of how they had fared; and the king became very angry with the townsmen; and the king sent for Earl Godwine and ordered him to go into Kent with hostility to Dover, because Eustace had informed the king that it must be more the townsmen's fault than his; but it was not so. And the earl would not agree to the incursion because it was abhorrent to him to injure his own province.

Then the king sent for all his council, and ordered them to come to Gloucester around the second Festival of St Mary. The foreigners had then built a castle in Herefordshire, in Earl Swein's province, and inflicted every injury and insult they could upon the king's men thereabouts. Then Earl Godwine, Earl Swein, and Earl Harold came together at Beverstone, and many men with them, to the end that they should travel to their royal lord and the whole council which was gathered with him, so that they have the king's advice and his help, and of all the council, as to how they might avenge the insult to the king and the whole nation. Then the foreign men got to the king first, and accused the earls so that they could not come into his sight, because they said that they wanted to come there for treachery to the king. Earl Siward and Earl Leofric and many people with them from the north had come there to the king, and Earl Godwine and his sons were informed that the king and the men who were with him would take measures against them; and they firmly arrayed themselves in opposition, though it was abhorrent to them that they must stand against their royal lord. Then the council advised both sides that they should leave off all wrong-doing; and the king gave the peace of God and his complete friendship to both sides.

Then the king and his council decided that there should be another full council-meeting in London at the autumn equinox, and the king ordered a raiding-army to be called out, both south and north of the Thames, quite the best that ever was. Then Earl Swein was declared an outlaw, and Earl Godwine and Earl Harold were summoned to the meeting as quickly as they could make it. Then when they came out there they were summoned to the meeting. Then he [Godwine] asked for safe-conduct and hostages that he might come into the meeting and go out of the meeting without treachery. Then the king asked for all those thegns that the earls formerly had, and they resigned them all into his hands. Then the king sent again to them and ordered them that they come with 12 men into the king's council. Then the earl again asked for safe-conduct and hostages, so that he might clear himself of each of the things with which he was charged. Then he was refused the hostages, and he was granted 5 days' protection to travel out of the country.And then Earl Godwine and Earl Swein turned to Bosham, and pushed out their ships and turned beyond the sea and sought the protection of Baldwin, and lived there all winter. And Earl Harold turned west to Ireland, and was there all winter under the king's protection. And then soon after this happened the king abandoned the Lady who was consecrated his queen, and had taken from her all that she owned, in land and in gold and in silver and in everything, and committed her to his sister at Wherwell.

And Abbot Sparrowhawk was then driven out of the bishopric in London, and William, the king's priest, was ordained to it. And then Odda was set as earl over Devonshire, and over Somerset, and over Dorset, and over Cornwall; and there was set into the hand of Aelfgar, Earl Leofric's son, the earldom which Harold earlier owned.

1052.. Here in this year passed away Aelfgifu Emma, mother of King Edward and of King Harthacnut. And in the same year the king and his council decided that ships should be despatched out to Sandwich, and set Earl Ralph and Earl Odda as commanders thereto. Then Earl Godwine turned out from Bruges with his ships to the Yser, and set out the day before the Feast of midsummer eve so that he came to Ness which is to the south of Romney. This then came to the knowledge of the earls out at Sandwich, and they turned out after the other ships, and a land-army was ordered out against the ships. Then meanwhile Earl Godwine was warned and he then made his way into Pevensey; and the weather became so very severe that the earls could not find out what had happened to Earl Godwine. And then Earl Godwine turned out again until he came back to Bruges; and the other ships made their way back again to Sandwich. And then it was decided that these ships should turn back again to London, and that other earls and other oarsmen should be set for the ships. Then it was delayed so long that the ship-campaign was wholly abandoned and they all made their way home. Then Earl Godwine learnt that and then hoisted sail - he and his fleet - and then made their way west, direct to Wight, and went up there and raided so long that the local people paid as much as they charged them; and then made their way westward until they came to Portland, and went up there and did whatsoever harm they could.

Harold was then coming out of Ireland with nine ships, and then came up at Porlock; and there many people gathered to oppose him, but he did not hesitate to provide himself with food, went inland, and there killed a great part of the people and seized for himself whatever came his way in cattle, and in men, and in property; and then made his way eastward to his father, and both made their way eastward until they came to Wight, and there seized what was left behind earlier, and then made their way from there to Pevensey, and caught up along with them as many of the ships there as were fit, and thus on until he came to Ness, and caught up all the ships that were in Romney and in Hythe and in Folkestone; and turned then east to Dover and went up there, and seized as many ships and hostages there as they wanted, and so travelled to Sandwich, and did exactly the same; and everywhere they were given hostages and provisions wherever they asked. And then they made their way to the North Mouth, and so towards London. And some of the ships turned into Sheppey and did great harm there, and made their way to the king's Middle-town and burnt it all down, and took their way towards London after the earls. When they came to London the king and the earls all lay against them with 50 ships. Then the earls sent to the king and asked him that they might be entitled to all the things which had unjustly been taken from them. However the king objected some while, so long that the people who were with the earl became very stirred up against the king and against his people, so that the earl himself with difficulty calmed that people. Then Bishop Stigand travelled there, with God's help, and the wise men both inside the town and outside, and advised that hostages should be fixed on either side, and so it was done. When Archbishop Robert and the French men learnt that, they seized their horses, and some turned west to Pentecost's castle, some north to Robert's castle, and Archbishop Robert and Bishop Ulf and their companions turned out at East Gate, and killed and otherwise injured many young men, and made their way direct to Eadulf's Ness, and there he [Robert] got on an unsteady ship and travelled right on across the sea, and abandoned his pallium and all Christendom here in the land, just as God wanted it, because he had earlier obtained the honour just as God did not want it. Then a great meeting was declared outside London, and all the earls and the best men who were in this land were in the meeting. There Earl Godwine set out his case, and cleared himself there before King Edward his lord, and before all the people of the land, that he was guiltless of what he was charged with - and Harold his son, and all his children. And the king restored to the earl and his children his whole friendship, and whole earldom and all that he earlier owned, and to all those men who were with him. And the king gave the Lady all that she earlier owned. And Archbishop Robert - and all the French men - were declared wholly outlaw because they were most responsible for that discord between Earl Godwine and the king. And Bishop Stigand succeeded to the archbishopric in Canterbury. And at this time Earnwig, abbot of Peterborough, resigned the abbacy, while alive and in health, and gave it to Leofric the monk, by the king's leave and by the monks'; and the abbot Earnwig lived for 8 years afterwards. And the abbot Leofric then endowed that monastery, such that it was then called 'Golden Borough', when it grew greatly in land and in gold and in silver.

1053. Here, in this year, Earl Godwine passed away on 15 April; and he is buried in Winchester in the Old Minster; and Earl Harold, his son, succeeded to the earldom and to all that which his father owned, and Earl Aelfgar succeeded to the earldom which Harold earlier owned.

1054. Battle at Mortemer. Here in this year Leo, the holy pope in Rome, passed away; and in this year there was as great a pestilence among cattle than man could remember for many years previous; and Victor was chosen as pope.

1055. Here in this year Earl Siward passed away; and a full council-meeting was ordered 7 days before mid-Lent, and Earl Aelfgar was outlawed because it was thrown at him that he was traitor to the king and all the people of the land. And he admitted this before all the men who were gathered there, although the words shot out against his will.

And the king gave Tostig, son of Earl Godwine, the earldom which Earl Siward owned before. And Earl Aelfgar sought the protection of Gruffydd in Wales; and in this year Gruffyd and Aelfgar burned down St Aethe;berht's minster and all the town of Hereford.

1056. Here Henry, emperor of the Romans, died, whom his son Henry succeeded.

1057. Here in this year came the aetheling Edward, King Edmund's son, here to the land, and soon afterwards departed; and his body is buried in St Paul's minster in London. And Pope Victor passed away and Stephen was chosen as pope; he was abbot in Monte Cassino. And Earl Leofric passed away, and Aelfgar, his son, succeeded to the earldom which the father earlier had.

1058. Here in this year Pope Stephen passed away, and Benedict was consecrated as pope; the same sent the pallium to Archbishop Stigand here to the land. And in this year passed away Heca, bishop in Sussex; and Archbishop Stigand ordained Aethelric, monk at Christ Church, as bishop for Sussex, and Abbot Siward as bishop for Rochester.

1059. Here in this year Nicholas was chosen as pope; he was bishop at the town of Florence; and Benedict, who was pope earlier, was driven out,

1060. Here Henry, king of the French, died, whom his son Philip succeeded. In this year passed away Cynesige, archbishop in York, on 22 December, and Bishop Aldred succeeded to it; and Walter succeeded to the bishopric in Hereford.

1061. Here in this year passed away Duduc, bishop in Somerset, and Giso succeeded. And in the same year passed away Godwine, bishop at St Martin's, on 9 March. And in the self-same year Wulfric, abbot at St Augustine's, passed away in Easter week on 18 April. Then when word came to the king that the abbot Wulfric had passed away, he chose for it Aethelsige, a monk from Old Minster, and thus followed [the wish of] Archbishop Stigand; and [he] became consecrated as abbot at Windsor on St Augustine's Day.

1062. This year Maine was subjected by William, count of Normandy.

1063. Here Earl Harold and his brother Earl Tostig went into Wales both with land-army and with raiding ship-army, and conquered that land; and that people gave hostages and submitted to them, and afterwards went to and killed their king Gruffydd, and brought Harold his head, and he set another king for it.

1064 [1063]. Here in this year the Northumbrians went together and outlawed their earl Tostig, and killed all the men of his court they could come at, both English and Danish, and seized all his weapons in York, and gold and silver, and all his monies which they could find out about anywhere there; and sent for Morcar, son of Earl Aelfgar, and chose him as their earl. And he went south with all the shire, and with Nottinghamshire and Derbyshire and Lincolnshire, until he came to Northampton; and his brother Edwin came to meet him with the men who were in his earldom; and also many Welshmen came with him. There came Earl Harold to meet them, and they charged him with a message to the king Edward, and also sent messengers with him, and asked that they might have Morcar as their earl. And the king granted this, and sent Harold back to them, to Northampton, on the eve of the festival of Sts Simon and Jude, and made known the same to them, and gave them his hand on it, and renewed the law of Cnut there. And the northern men did great harm around Northampton while he went on their message, in that they both killed men and burned houses and corn, and seized all the cattle that they could come at, which was many thousands; and they seized many hundreds of men, and led them off north with them, so that the shire and the other shires which were near there were for many years the worse. And Earl Tostig, and his wife and all those who wanted what he wanted, went south across the sea with him to Earl Baldwin, and he received them all, and they were there all the winter.

1066. In this year [1065] the minster at Westminster was consecrated on Holy Innocents' Day, and the king Edward passed away on the eve of Twelfth Night, and was buried on Twelfth Night inside the newly consecrated church in Westminster. And Earl Harold succeeded to the kingdom of England just as the king granted it him - and also men chose him for it - and was blessed as king on Twelfth Night. And the same year in which he became king, he went out against William with a raiding ship-army. And meanwhile Earl Tostig came into the Humber with 60 ships. Earl Edwin came with a land-army and drove him out, and the boatmen deserted him; and he went to Scotland with 12 cutters, and Harald, the king of the Norwegians,met him with 300 ships, and Tostig submitted to him. And they both went into the Humber until they came to York; and Earl Morcar and Earl Edwin fought with them, and the king of the Norwegians had the victory. And King Harold was informed what had happened and was done there, and he came with a great raiding-army of English men, and met him at Stamford Bridge, and killed him and the earl Tostig and courageously overcame all that raiding-army. And meanwhile Earl William [came] up at Hastings on the Feast of St Michael and Harold came from the north, and fought with him before all his raiding-army had come; and there he fell, and his two brothers, Gyrth and Leofwine. And William conquered this land, and came to Westminster, and Archbishop Aldred consecrated him as king. And men paid him tribute, and gave hostages, and afterwards bought their lands.

And Leofric, abbot of Peterborough, was at that campaign, and there fell ill and came home, and was dead soon after that on the night of All Saints. God have mercy on his soul. In his day there was complete happiness and complete prosperity in Peterborough, and he was beloved by all people, so that the king gave to St Peter and him the abbacy in Burton, and that of Coventry which the earl Leofric, who was his uncle, had made earlier, and that of Crowland and that of Thorney. And he did more to enrich the minster of Peterborough in gold and in silver and in vestments and in land, as no other man ever did before him, or after him. Then 'Golden Borough' became 'Wretched Borough'. The monks then chose Brand the provost as abbot, because he was a very good man, and very wise, and then sent him to the aetheling Edgar because the local people thought he ought to become king, and the aetheling happily agreed it for him. Then when King William heard tell of it, he became very angry, and said that the abbot had slighted him. Then good men went between them and reconciled them, because the abbot was a rather good man; then [he] gave the king 40 marks of gold in reconciliation; and then he lived for only a little while thereafter, for only three years. Afterwards there came calamity and all evil on the minster. God have mercy on it.

1067. Here the king went across the sea, and had with him hostages and monies, and came back the next year on the Feast of St Nicholas; and that day Christ Church in Canterbury burned down. And he bestowed every man's land when he came back. And [1068] that summer Prince Edgar went away, and Maerleswein, and many men with them, and went to Scotland, and the king Malcolm received them all, and took Margaret, the prince's sister, to wife.

Here in this year King William gave Earl Robert the earldom in Northumberland. Then [1069] the local men came against him and killed him and 9 hundred men with him. And the setheling Edgar then came to York with all the Northumbrians, and the men of the market-town made peace with him. And the king William came from the south with all his army and ravaged the town, and killed many hundreds of men; and the aetheling went back to Scotland.

Here Bishop /Ethelric in Peterborough was accused, and was sent to Westminster, and his brother, Bishop Aethelwine, was outlawed. Then between the two Feasts of St Mary, they, that is the sons of King Swein, and his brother Jarl Osbern, came from the east from Denmark with 300 ships.

1070. Here the earl Waltheof made peace with the king. And in the following spring the king allowed all the minsters which were in England to be raided. Then in the same year King Swein came from Denmark into the Humber, and the local people came to him and made peace with him - thought that he would conquer that land. Then Christian, the Danish bishop, came to Ely, and Jarl Osbern and the Danish housecarls with them. And the English people from all the Fenlands came to them - thought that they would win all that land. Then the monks of Peterborough heard say that their own men, that was Hereward and his band, wanted to raid the minster - that was because they had heard say that the king had given the abbacy to a French abbot called Turold, and that he was a very stern man and had then come into Stamford with all his French men. There was then a sacristan called Yware; he at night took all he could: that was Christ's books and chasubles and copes and robes and such little things - whatsoever he could, and straightway before dawn travelled to the abbot Turold, and told him that he sought his protection, and informed him how the outlaws were to come to Peterborough. He did that entirely on the advice of the monks. Then straightway in the morning all the outlaws came with many ships and wanted [to get] into the minster, and the monks withstood so that they could not come in. Then they laid fire to it, and burned down all the monks' buildings and all the town, except for one building. Then, by means of fire, they came in at Bolhithe Gate. The monks came to meet them, asked them for peace, but they did not care about anything, went into the minster, climbed up to the holy rood, took the crown off our Lord's head - all of pure gold - then took the rest which was underneath his feet - that was all of red gold - climbed up to the steeple, brought down the altar-frontal that was hidden there - it was all of gold and of silver. They took there two golden shrines, and 9 silver, and they took fifteen great roods, both of gold and of silver. They took there so much gold and silver and and so many treasures in money and in clothing and in booksthat no man can tell another - said they did it out of

loyalty to this minster. Afterwards they made for ship, and took themselves to Ely, and entrusted all the treasures there. The Danish men thought they would overcome the French men, then drove away all the monks - left none there, except for one monk who was called Leofwine the Long; he lay sick in the infirmary. Then Abbot Turold came, and eight times twenty French men with him, all fully armed. When he came there he found everything inside and outside burned down - all but the church alone. The outlaws were all afloat then - knew that he would come there. This was done on 2 June. Then when the two kings, William and Swein, came to terms, the Danish men travelled out of Ely with all the afore-mentioned treasures and took them with them. Then when they came to the middle of the sea, a great storm came and scattered all the ships in which the treasures were: some travelled to Norway, some to Ireland, some to Denmark - and all that came there was only the altar-frontal, and some shrines, and some crosses and several of the other treasures; and brought to a royal manor called. . . . , and then put it all in the church.

And then afterwards, through their carelessness and through their drunkenness, on one night the church burned down and all there was in it. Thus was the minster of Peterborough burned down and ravaged. May God Almighty through his great compassion have pity on it! And thus the abbot Turold came to Peterborough, and then the monks came back and performed the service of Christ in the church, which earlier stood a full week without any kind of rite. Then when Bishop Aethelric heard tell of that, he excommunicated all the men who had done that evil deed. There was a great famine that year, and then the following summer the fleet came from the north, from the Humber, into the Thames, and lay there two days, and afterwards held a course for Denmark. And Earl Baldwin passed away, and Arnulf, his son, succeeded to the authority. And Earl William was to be his guardian - and also the king of the French. And then Earl Robert came and killed his relative Arnulf and the earl, and put the king to flight, and killed many thousands of his men.

1071. Here Earl Edwin and Earl Morcar ran off and travelled variously in woods and in open country. Then Earl Morcar turned on ship to Ely, and Earl Edwin was killed treacherously by his own men. And the bishop Aethelwine and Siward Bearn and many hundreds of men with them came into Ely. And then when the king William learnt about that, he ordered out ship-army and land-army, and surrounded that land, and made a bridge and went in - and the ship-army [was] to the seaward. And then the outlaws all came into hand: that was Bishop Aethelwine and Earl Morcar and all those who were with them, except Hereward alone, and all who wanted to be with him; and he courageously led them out. And the king took ships and weapons and many monies, and dealt with the men just as he wanted; and he sent the bishop Aethelwine to Abingdon and he passed away there soon the following winter.

1072. Here King William led a ship-army and land-army to Scotland, and beset that land to seaward with ships, and led his land-army in at the Forth/ and there he found nothing he was the better for. And the king Malcolm came and made peace with the king William and gave hostages and was his man; and the king turned home with all his army. And the bishop Aethelric passed away; he was ordained bishop for York but it was taken from him unjustly,and he was given the bishopric in Durham, and he had it as long as he wanted, and afterwards relinquished it and travelled to Peterborough to St Peter's minster where he conducted his life for 12 years. Then after the king William won England, he took him from Peterborough and sent him to Westminster.And he passed away on 15 October, and he is buried there inside the minster inside St Nicholas' side-chapel.

In this year King William led an English and French raiding-army across the sea, and won the land of Maine, and the English greatly despoiled it; they did for vineyards, burned down towns, and greatly despoiled that land, and bent it all into William's hands, and afterwards they turned home to England.

In this year King William went across the sea to Normandy, and Prince Edgar came from Scotland to Normandy, and the king revoked the outlawry on him and all his men; and he was in the king's court and took such rights as the king granted him.

1075. In this year King William gave the daughter of William fitz Osbern in marriage to Earl Ralph; and the same Ralph was Breton on his mother's side, and his father was English - called Ralph, and was born in Norfolk. Then the king gave his [Ralph's] son the earldom in Norfolk and Suffolk. He then led that woman to Norwich.

That bride-ale there was death to men.

Earl Roger was there, and Earl Waltheof, and bishops and abbots, and there planned that they would put the king out of the kingship of England. And it soon became known to the king in Normandy, how it was planned. It was Earl Roger and Earl Ralph who were the foremost in the foolish plan, and they seduced the Bretons to them, and sent east to Denmark for a raiding ship-army to support them. And Roger travelled west to his earldom and gathered his people to the king's detriment, but he was hindered. And Ralph, also, in his earldom wanted to go forward with his people, but the castle-men which were in England, and also the local people, came against him and acted so that he did nothing but went to ship at Norwich. And his wife was inside the castle, and held it until she was granted safe-conduct, and then she and all her men who wanted to go with her travelled out of England. And the king afterwards came to England and seized his relative, Earl Roger, and secured him. And he took Earl Waltheof also.

And soon after that zoo ships came from the east from Denmark, and there were on board two head men, King Swein's son Cnut, and Earl Hakon, and they dared not join battle with King William but held on across the sea to Flanders.

And the Lady Edith passed away in Winchester 7 days before Christmas, and the king had her brought to Westminster with great honour, and laid her with King Edward, her lord.

And he was at Westminster that midwinter, and there all the Bretons who were at the bride-ale at Norwich were done for:

Some were blinded and some driven from the land. Thus were traitors to William laid low.

1076. In this year passed away Swein, king in Denmark; and Harald, his son, succeeded to the kingdom.

And the king gave Westminster to Abbot Vitalis, who was earlier abbot in Bernay; and Earl Waltheof was beheaded in Winchester, and his body was led to Crowland.

And the king went across the sea, and led his army to Brittany, and besieged the castle of D61, and the Bretons held it until the king came from the land of France; and William went from there and lost there both men and horses, and many of his treasures.

1077. Here in this year the king of the French and William, king of England, were reconciled, but it held only a little while.

And in this year, one day before the Assumption of St Mary, London burned down, more so than it ever was before since it was founded.

And in this year [1078] Aethelwig, abbot in Evesham, passed away on 16 February. And Bishop Hereman also passed away on 20 February.

1079. In this year King Malcolm came from Scotland into England between the two Feasts of Mary with a great army, which raided the land of the Northumbrians as far as the Tyne, and killed many hundreds of men, and led home much money and treasure, and men in captivity. And the same year the king William fought against his son Robert outside Normandy, near a castle called Gerberoy. And the king William was wounded there, and his horse which he sat on killed. And his son William was also wounded there, and many men killed.

In this year Walcher, the bishop in Durham, was killed at a meeting, and a hundred men with him, French and Flemish; and he himself was born in Lotharingia. The Northumbrians did this in the month of May.

In this year the king led an army into Wales, and there freed many hundreds of men.

Here the king seized Bishop Odo; and here there was a great famine.

In this year the discord arose in Glastonbury between the abbot Thurstan and his monks. First it came from the abbot's lack of wisdom in that he misgoverned his monks in many things. And the monks complained, lovingly, to him about it, and asked him that he would rule them justly and love them, and they would be loyal and obedient to him. But the abbot wanted nothing of it, but treated them badly, and threatened them with worse. One day the abbot strode into chapter and spoke against the monks and wanted to ill treat them, and sent for laymen and they came into the chapter fully armed upon the monks. And then the monks were very afraid of them, and did not know what they should do, but scattered. Some ran into the church and locked the doors against them; and they went after them into the minster and wanted to drag them out since they dare not go out. But a pitiful thing happened there that day, in that the French men broke into the choir and pelted the altar where the monks were; and some of the knights went up to the upper floor and shot arrows downwards towards the sanctuary, so that many arrows stuck in the rood which stood above the altar. And the wretched monks lay around the altar, and some crept under, and earnestly called on God, praying for his mercy when they could get no mercy from men. What more can we say, but that they shot fiercely, and the others broke down the doors there, and went in and did some of the monks to death, and wounded many in there, so that the blood came down from the altar onto the steps, and from the steps to the floor. There were three done to death, and eighteen wounded.

And in this same year passed away Matilda, King William's queen, on the day after the Feast of All Saints.

And in this same year after midwinter the king had [1084] great and heavy tax ordered over all England - that was seventy-two pence for every hide.

Here in this year passed away Wulfwold, abbot in Chertsey, on 19 April.

In this year men declared, and said for a fact, that Cnut, king of Denmark, son of King Swein, set out in this direction, and wanted to win this land with the support of Earl Robert of Flanders, because Cnut had [married] Robert's daughter. When William, king of England, learnt about this - he was then staying in Normandy because he owned both England and Normandy -he travelled into England with a greater raiding-army of mounted men and infantry from the kingdom of France and from Brittany as had ever sought out this country before - such that men wondered how this land could feed all that raiding-army. But the king had the raiding-army distributed through all this land to his men, and they fed the raiding-army, each according to the proportion of his land. And men had great labour that year, and the king had the land near the sea laid waste, so that if his enemies landed they would have nothing on which to seize so quickly. But then when the king learned for a fact that his enemies were hindered and could not set out on their expedition, he let some of the raiding-army travel to their own land, and some he kept in this land over winter.

Then at midwinter the king was at Gloucester with his council, and held his court there for 5 days; and afterwards the archbishop and ordained men had a synod for three days. There Maurice was chosen as bishop in London, and William for Norfolk, and Robert for Cheshire: they were all the king's clerics.

After this the king had great thought and very deep conversation with his council about this land, how it was occupied, or with which men. Then he sent his men all over England into every shire and had them ascertain how many hundreds of hides there were in the shire, or what land and livestock the king himself had in the land, or what dues he ought to have in 12 months from the shire. Also he had it recorded how much land his archbishops had, and his diocesan bishops, and his abbots and his earls, and - though I tell it at too great length - what or how much each man had who was occupying land here in England, in land or in livestock, and how much money it was worth. He had it investigated so very narrowly that there was not one single hide, not one yard of land, not even (it is shameful to tell - but it seemed no shame to him to do it) one ox, not one cow, not one pig was left out, that was not set down in his record. And all the records were brought to him afterwards.

1085 [1086]. Here the king wore his crown and held his court in Winchester for the Easter, and travelled so that he was at Westminster for the Pentecost and there dubbed his son Henry a 'rider'. Afterwards he travelled about so that he came to Salisbury for Lammas, and his council came to him there and all the men occupying land who were of any account over all England, whichever man's men they were, and all submitted to him and were his men, and swore him loyal oaths that they would be loyal to him against all other men. From there he travelled into Wight because he wanted to go into Normandy, and did so afterwards. First, however, he did as he was accustomed - obtained much money from his men where he might have any claim, whether with justice or otherwise. Afterwards he travelled into Normandy, and the astheling Edgar, King Edward's relative, then turned from him because he had no great honour from him: but may the Almighty God give him honour in the future. And Christina, the astheling's sister, retired into the minster at Romsey and received holy repose.

And this same year was a very heavy year, and a very laborious and sorrowful year in England, in pestilence among cattle; and corn and crops were left standing and [there was] such great misfortune with the weather as cannot easily be conceived; there was such great thundering and lightning that it killed many men; and it always got worse and worse for men. May God Almighty remedy it when it be his will!

1086 [1087]. One thousand and eighty-seven years after the birth-time of our Lord Jesus Christ, in the twenty-first year that William ruled and governed England, as God granted him, occurred a very heavy and pestiferous year in this land. Such a disease came on men that very nearly every other man had the worst illness - that is the fever, and that so severely that many men died from the illness. Afterwards, through the great bad weather which came as we already told, there came a very great famine over all England, so that many hundreds of men died wretched deaths through the famine. Alas! how wretched and how pitiful a time it was then! Then the miserable men lay well-nigh driven to death, and afterwards came the sharp famine and did for them completely.

Who cannot pity such a time? Or who is so hard-hearted that he cannot weep for such misfortune? But such things happen because of the people's sins, in that they will not love God and righteousness. Just so it was then in those days, that little righteousness was in this land with any man, except with monks alone - there where they behaved well. The king and the principal men greatly loved, and over-greatly, greed in gold and in silver, and did not care how sinfully it was got as long as it came to them. The king granted his land on such hard terms, the hardest he could. Then a second came and offered more than the other earlier gave, and the king let it go to the man who offered him more. Then a third came and offered yet more, and the king let it go into the hands of the man who offered him most of all, and did not care how very sinfully the reeves got it from wretched men, nor how many unlawful things they did; but the greater the talk about just law, the more unlawful things were done. They levied unjust tolls and they did many other unjust things which are difficult to relate.

Also, in the same year, before autumn, the holy minster of St Paul, the bishop's seat in London, burned down, and many other minsters and the largest part - and the finest - of all the town. So also, at the same time, well-nigh every major market-town in all England burned down. Alas! a pitiful and tearful time it was that year, which brought forth so many misfortunes.

Also, in the same year, before the Assumption of St Mary, King William went from Normandy into France with an army, and raided against his own lord, Philip the king, and killed a great part of his men, and burned down the town of Mantes and all the holy minsters which were inside the town. And two holy men who served God living in an anchorite's cell were burned to death there.

This thus done, the king William turned back to Normandy. He did a pitiful thing, and more pitiful happened to him. How more pitiful? He became ill and that afflicted him severely. What can I say! The sharp death which spares neither powerful men nor lowly - it seized him. He died in Normandy on the day immediately after the Nativity of St Mary and was buried in Caen at St Stephen's minster; he had built it earlier and afterwards endowed [it] in many various ways.

Alas! how false and unstable is the prosperity of this world. He who was earlier a powerful king, and lord of many a land, he had nothing of any land but a seven-foot measure; and he who was at times clothed with gold and with jewels, he lay then covered over with earth.

He left behind him three sons. The eldest was called Robert, who was earl in Normandy after him. The second was called William, who wore the royal crown in England after him. The third was called Henry, to whom the father bequeathed untold treasures.

If anyone wishes to know what sort of man he was, or what honour he had, or of how many lands he was lord, then we will write about him just as we who have looked upon him and at one time lived in his court, perceived him. The king William, about whom we speak, was a very wise man, and very powerful, and more worshipful and stronger than any of his predecessors were. He was kind to those good men who loved God, and stern beyond all measure to those men who opposed his will. In the same place where God granted him that he might conquer England he raised a famous minster, and set monks there and endowed it well. In his days the famous minster in Canterbury was built, and also many others over all England. Also this land was greatly filled with monks, and they lived their life according to the rule of St Benedict, and Christendom was such in his day that every man who wanted to, followed what pertained to his order.

Also he was very worshipful. He wore his royal crown three times each year, as often as he was in England. At Easter he wore it in Winchester, at Pentecost in Westminster, at midwinter in Gloucester; and there were then with him all the powerful men over all England: archbishops and diocesan bishops, abbots and earls, thegns and knights. He was also a very stern man, and violent, so that no one dared do anything against his will. He had earls in his bonds who went against his will; bishops he put out of their bishoprics and abbots out of their abbacies - and thegns into prison; and finally he did not spare his own brother, called Odo. He was a powerful bishop in Normandy -his bishop's seat was in Bayeux - and he was the foremost man next to the king. And he had an earldom in England, and when the king was in Normandy he was master in this land. And him he put in prison. Among other things, the good order he made in this land is not to be forgotten, so that a man who was of any account could travel over his kingdom with his bosom full of gold, unmolested; and no man dare kill another man, however great a wrong he might have done the other. And if any common man had sex with a woman against her will, he immediately lost the limbs with which he played.

He ruled over England, and by his astuteness it was so surveyed that there was not one hide of land in England that he did not know who had it or what it was worth, and afterwards set down in his record. Wales was in his control and he built castles there and entirely controlled that race of men. So also Scotland he made subject to him by his great strength. Normandy, that land was his by right of birth, and he ruled over the earldom which is called Maine.And if he could have lived two years more he would have won Ireland by his shrewdness and without any weapon. Assuredly in his time men had great toil and very many insults.

He had castles built
and wretched men oppressed.
The king was so very stark
and seized from his subject men many a mark
of gold, and more hundreds of pounds of silver
that he took by weight, and with great injustice
from his land's nation with little need.
He was fallen into avarice,
and he loved greediness above all.
He set up great game-preserves, and he laid down laws for them,
that whosoever killed hart or hind
he was to be blinded.
He forbade [hunting] the harts, so also the boars;
he loved the stags so very much,
as if he were their father;
also he decreed for the hares that they might go free.
His powerful men lamented it, and the wretched men complained of it
but he was so severe that he did not care about the emnity of all of them;
but they must wholly follow the king's will
if they wanted to live or have land -
and or property or his good favour.
Alas, woe, that any man should be so proud,
raise up and reckon himself over all men.
May the Almighty God shew mercy to his soul
and grant him forgiveness of his sins.

We have written these things about him, both the good and the evil, that good men may take after the goodness and wholly flee the evil, and go on the path that leads us to the kingdom of heaven.

We can write of many things which happened in the same year. Thus it was in Denmark that the Danish, who were earlier reckoned the most faithfull of all peoples, were turned to the greatest faithlessness and to the greatest treachery which could ever happen. They chose and submitted to King Cnut and swore him oaths, and afterwards basely killed him inside a church. Also it happened in Spain that the heathen men went and raided against the Christian men, and bent much of it to their control; but the king of the Christians, who was called Alfonso, he sent everywhere into each land, and begged for support; and support came to him from each land which was Christian, and travelled and killed and drove away all that heathen people, and won their land through God's support.

Also, in this same land [England] in the same year, passed away many powerful men: Stigand, bishop of Chichester, and the abbot of St Augustine's, and the abbot of Bath and that of Pershore, and then the lord of them all, William king of England, of whom we earlier spoke before. After his death his son, called William just like the father, succeeded to the kingdom and was blessed as king in Westminster by Archbishop Lanfranc, three days before the Feast of Michaelmas; and all the men in England submitted to him and swore him oaths. This thus done, the king travelled to Winchester and inspected the jewel-house and the treasures which his father gathered earlier; it was impossible for any man to say how much was gathered there in gold and in silver and in vessels and in purple cloth and in gems and in many other precious things which are difficult to recount/ The king then did as his father commanded him before he was dead: for his father's soul he distributed these treasures to each minster which was within England, to some minsters 10 marks of gold, to some 6, and to each country church 60 pence; and into each shire was sent a hundred pounds in money to be distributed to poor men for his soul. And before he passed away, he commanded that all those who were under his control in confinement should be released. And the king was in London that midwinter.

1087 [1088]. In this year this land was very stirred up and filled with great treachery, so that the most powerful French men who were within this land wanted to betray their lord the king, and wanted to have as king his brother Robert who was earl in Normandy. In this plan were first Bishop Odo, Bishop Geoffrey, and William, bishop in Durham. The king did so well by the bishop that all England acted according to his plan and just as he wanted; and he thought to do by him just like Judas Iscariot did by our Lord. And Earl Roger was also in that foolish plan, and very many people with them - all French men; and this foolish plan was planned in the spring. Then as soon as it came to the Easter, they travelled and raided and burned and laid waste the king's home-farms, and they did for the lands of all those men who were in the king's service. And each of them travelled to his castle and manned and provisioned it as best they could. Bishop Geoffrey and Robert of Mowbray travelled to Bristol, and raided, and brought the plunder to the castle; and afterwards they went out from the castle and raided Bath and all the land thereabout, and they laid waste all Berkeley. And those men who were the chief in Hereford, and all the shire forth with them, and the men of Shropshire with a great people from Walescame and raided and burned in Worcestershire, on until they came to the market-town itself, and wanted to burn the market-town, and rob the minster, and get their hands on the king's castle. Seeing these things, the reverend bishop Wulfstan became very troubled in his mind, because the castle was entrusted to him to hold; however, the men of his court went out with a few men from the castle, and through God's mercy and through the bishop's merits, killed and captured five hundred men, and put all the others to flight. The bishop of Durham did what harm he could everywhere in the north. One of them was called Roger, who ran away into the castle at Norwich, and still did worst of all over all the land. Hugh also was one who did not improve anything, neither in Leicestershire nor in Northampton. The bishop Odo, with whom the business originated, travelled into Kent to his earldom and greatly did for it, and wholly laid waste the king's land and the archbishop's, and brought all the goods into his castle in Rochester.

Then when the king perceived all these things, and what treachery they did against him, he became greatly troubled in his mind, then sent for English men and announced his need to them, and begged their support, and promised them the best law there ever was in this land; and forbade every unjust tax, and granted men their woods and coursing - but it did not last long. But nevertheless the English men came to the support of the king their lord; they travelled towards Rochester and wanted to get the bishop Odo - thought that if they had him who was earlier head in the foolish plan, they could the better get all the others. They came then to the castle at Tonbridge; inside the castle were Bishop Odo's knights and many others who wanted to hold with him against the king. But the English men travelled and attacked the castle, and the men who were in there made peace with the king. The king with his raiding-army travelled towards Rochester, and supposed that the bishop was in there, but it became known to the king that the bishop had journied to the castle at Pevensey; and the king with his raiding-army travelled after, and besieged the castle around with a very great raiding-army for fully six weeks.

In the middle of this, Robert, the earl of Normandy, the king's brother, gathered a very great company, and thought to win England with the support of those men in this land who were against the king; and he sent some of his men to this land, and would come afterwards himself. But the English men who guarded the sea captured some of the men and killed and drowned more than anyone knew how to reckon.

Afterwards their food ran short inside the castle; then they begged safe-conduct, and gave it up to the king. And the bishop swore that he would go out of England, and not come to this land any more unless the king sent for him, and that he would give up the castle in Rochester. Just so, the bishop travelled and was to give up the castle [of Rochester] and the king sent his men with him. Then the men who were in the castle rose, and seized the bishop and the king's men and put them in confinement. Within the castle were very good knights: Eustace the young, and three sons of Earl Roger, and all the best-born men who were in this land or in Normandy.

Then when the king realised these things, he travelled after them with the raiding-army that he had there, and sent over all England, and commanded that every man who was not a scoundrel should come to him, French and English, from town and from country. A great company then came to him, and he went [to] Rochester and besieged the castle, until they who were in it made peace and gave up the castle. The bishop Odo with the men who were inside the castle travelled across the sea, and the bishop thus relinquished the honour which he had in this land. The king afterwards sent a raiding-army to Durham and had the castle besieged; and the bishop made peace and gave up the castle, and relinquished his bishopric and travelled to Normandy. Also many French men relinquished their lands and travelled across the sea; and the king gave their lands to the men who were loyal to him.

In this year the reverend father and comfort of monks, Archbishop Lanfranc, departed from this life, but we are confident that he has gone to the heavenly kingdom. Moreover a great earth-tremor happened all over England on 11 August; and it was a very late year for corn and for crops of every kind, so that many men reaped their corn about Martinmas and even later.

Thirteenth Indiction. These things thus done, just as we earlier said above about the king and about his brother and about his men, the king was deliberating how he could take vengeance on his brother Robert, distress him most, and win Normandy from him. However, by his astuteness, or by treasure, he got the castle at St Valery, and the harbour; and so also he got that at Aumale and set his knights in it; and they did harm in the land by raiding and by burning. After this he got more castles in the land and lodged his riders in them.

When Robert the earl of Normandy realised that his sworn men had failed him and given up their castles to his detriment, he sent to his lord, Philip, king of the French, and he came to Normandy with a great raiding-army. And the king and the earl with a vast army besieged the castle in which the king of England's men were. The king William of England sent to Philip, king of the French, and he, either for love of him, or for his great treasure, abandoned his man the earl Robert and his land, and travelled back to France and thus let them be. And in the middle of these things this land was greatly done for by unjust taxation and by many other misfortunes.

1091. In this year [1090] the king William held his court at Christmas in Westminster; and after that, at Candlemas he travelled, to his brother's discomfiture, out of England into Normandy. While he was there, their reconciliation came about on the condition that the earl handed over to him Fecamp and the earldom of Eu and Cherbourg. And in addition to that, the king's men were to be unmolested in the castles which they had earlier got from the earl against his will. And in return the king promised him to make Maine obedient, which their father won earlier, and which had then turned against the earl; and [promised him] all that his father had over there, except what he had granted to the king, and that all those who in England earlier lost their land in the earl's cause should have it again by this pact - and the earl just as much in England as was laid down in their covenants. And if the earl pass away without son by lawful wedlock, the king was to be heir of all Normandy; by this same covenant if the king die, the earl was to be heir of all England. This covenant was sworn by 12 of the best of the king's side, and 12 of the earl's - though it did not last for long.

In with this pact the aetheling Edgar became deprived of lands - of those which the earl had handed over to him earlier - and went out of Normandy to Scotland, to the king his brother-in-law, and to his sister.

While the king William was out of England, the king Malcolm travelled from Scotland here into England and raided across a great part of it, until the good men who looked after this land sent an army against him and turned him back. Then when King William heard of this in Normandy, he prepared for his passage and came to England, and his brother the earl Robert with him, and immediately ordered his army to be called out, both the ship-army and land-army; but before he came to Scotland, four days before Michaelmas, almost all the ship-army wretchedly perished. And the king and his brother travelled with the land-army, but when the king Malcolm heard that it was intended to seek him out with an army, he went with his army out of Scotland into Lothian in England and waited there. Then when the king William approached with his army, Earl Robert and the aetheling Edgar went between and thus made a reconciliation between those kings, so that the king Malcolm came to our king and became his man, in all such obedience as he earlier did his father, and affirmed it with an oath; and the king William promised him, in land and in all things, that which he had formerly had under his father.

In this reconciliation the aetheling Edgar also became reconciled with the king; and then the kings parted in great reconciliation - but it did not last long. And the earl Robert lived here with the king well-nigh until Christmas, and during that found little faith in their covenants; and two days before that festival took ship in Wight and went into Normandy, and the aetheling Edgar with him.

In this year the king William travelled north to Carlisle with a very great army, and restored the town and raised the castle, and drove out Dolfin who earlier ruled the land there, and set the castle with his men, and afterwards returned south here, and sent very many peasants there with women and with livestock to live there to till that land.

In this year in the spring the king William became so very ill in Gloucester that he was everywhere declared dead; and in his affliction he promised many vows to God: to lead his own life righteously, and to grant peace and protection to God's minsters and never more again to sell them for money, and to have all just laws in his nation. And the archbishopric in Canterbury, which earlier stood in his own hand, he committed to Anselmwho had been abbot of Bec, and to Robert his chancellor that bishopric in Lincoln, and granted land to many monasteries - but he afterwards withdrew that when he was better, and relinquished all the good laws which he earlier promised us.

Then after this [the] king of Scotland sent and asked for the covenants which were promised him; and the king William summoned him to Gloucester, and sent him hostages to Scotland and later the aetheling Edgar, and then afterwards men to meet him who brought him to the king with great honour. But then when he came to the king, he could be entitled neither to speech with our king nor to the covenants which were earlier promised him; and therefore they parted with great discord, and the king Malcolm returned home to Scotland. But quickly, after he came home, he gathered his army, and travelled into England, raiding with greater folly than behoved him, and then Robert the earl of the Northumbrians with his men, by surprise trapped and killed him. Morel of Bamburgh, who was the earl's steward and King Malcolm's godfather, killed him. With him was also killed his son Edward, who would have been king after him if he had lived. Then when the good queen Margaret heard this - her dearest lord and son thus betrayed - she became anguished in mind to the point of death and went to church with her priests, and received her rites and prayed to God that she might give up her spirit. And then the Scots chose Malcolm's brother Donald as king, and drove out all the English who were with the king Malcolm earlier. Then when Duncan, King Malcolm's son, heard all this had happened thus - he was in the court of King William as his father had earlier given him as a hostage to our king's father, and remained here thus - he came to the king and gave such pledges as the king wanted to have from him, and thus with his consent went to Scotland with such support of English and of French as he could get, and deprived his relative Donald of the kingdom, and was received as king. But some of the Scots afterwards gathered, and killed well-nigh all his men, and he himself escaped with a few. Afterwards they became reconciled on condition that he never again lodged English men or French men in that land.

1094. Here [1093] the king William held his court at Christmas at Gloucester, and there came to him ambassadors from his brother, Robert of Normandy, who announced that his brother wholly renounced the peace and covenant, unless the king would fulfil all that they had earlier drawn up in the convenant; and upon that, called him forsworn and faithless unless he held to those covenants, or travelled there and cleared himself where the convenant was earlier drawn up and also sworn. Then at the Candlemas the king travelled to Hastings, and while he waited there for the weather, he had the minster at Battle consecrated, and deprived Herbert Losinga, bishop of Thetford, of his staff;' and after that, in mid-Lent, he went across the sea into Normandy. After he came there, he and his brother the earl Robert declared that they should come together in peace - and did so, and could not be agreed. Afterwards they came together again with the same men who earlier made that treaty and also swore the oaths, and attributed all the breach to the king; but he would not assent to that, nor also hold to the covenant, and therefore they turned away with great discord.

And afterwards the king won the castle at Bures and seized the earl's men in it and sent some of them here to this land. In return, the earl with the support of the king of France won the castle at Argentan, and in it seized Roger of Poitou and seven hundred of the king's knights with him; and afterwards that at Le Houlme, and each of them regularly burned the other's settlements, and also captured men.

Then the king sent here to the land and ordered 2.0 thousands of English men to be called out to support him in Normandy; but when they came to the sea they were ordered to turn back and, for the king's profit, to give the money they had taken - that was, each man half a pound. And they did so.

And after this, the earl in Normandy, with the king of France and with all those who they could gather, travelled towards Eu, where the king William was inside, and thought to besiege him inside, and thus went until they came to Longueville. There the king of France was turned back through intrigue, and so afterwards the whole campaign dispersed. Here, during this, the king William sent for his brother Henry who was in the castle at Domfront, but because he could not travel through Normandy in peace he sent ships for him and Hugh earl of Chester; but then when they should have gone towards Eu where the king was, they went to England and came up at Southampton on the eve of the Feast of All Saints, and stayed here afterwards, and at Christmas were in London.

Also in this same year the Welsh men gathered themselves and began hostilities with the French who were in Wales or in the neighbourhood and earlier deprived them of lands, and broke down many fortresses and castlesand killed the men. And after their company grew, they divided themselves into more. Hugh, earl of Shropshire, fought with one of these divisions and put them to flight. But nevertheless during all that year the others did not leave off doing all the evil they could.

Also in this year the Scots trapped and killed Duncan, their king, and afterwards for a second time took Donald, his paternal uncle, as their king, through whose instruction and instigation he was betrayed to death.

1095. In this year [1094] the king William was at Wissant for the first four days of Christmas; and after the fourth day went here to the land and came up at Dover. And Henry the king's brother dwelt here in the land until spring, [1095] and then, in loyalty to the king against their brother Earl Robert, went across the sea to Normandy with great treasures and frequently warred against the earl and did him great harm both in land and in men.

And then at Easter the king held his court in Winchester, and the earl Robert of Northumbria would not come to court; and therefore the king became very stirred up against him, and sent to him and sternly commanded that, if he wanted to be entitled to security, to come to court at Pentecost. In this year Easter was on 25 March. And then after Easter on the eve of the Feast of St Ambrose, that is 4 April, well-nigh all over this land and well-nigh all the night, manifold stars were seen to fall from heaven, not by ones or twos, but so thickly that nobody could reckon it. After that, at Pentecost the king was in Windsor, and all his council with him, except the earl of Northumbria,because the king would neither give him hostages nor grant upon pledges that he could come and go with safe-conduct.

And the king therefore summoned his army and went to Northumbria against the earl, and immediately he came there he conquered many, and well-nigh all the best men of the earl's court inside one fortress, and put them in captivity, and besieged the castle at Tynemouth until he conquered it, and in there the earl's brother and all those who were with him, and afterwards travelled to Bamburgh, and besieged the earl in there. But then, when the king saw that he could not conquer it, he then ordered a castle to be made in front of Bamburgh, and called it in his language Malveisin, that is in English 'Bad Neighbour', and set it strongly with his men and afterwards went southward. Then immediately after the king had gone south, the earl travelled out one night from Bamburgh towards Tynemouth; but those who were in the new castle became aware of it and went after him, and fought against and wounded and afterwards captured him; and of those who were with him, some killed, some took alive.

In the middle of this it became known to the king that the Welsh men had broken down a certain castle in Wales called Montgomery, and killed Earl Hugh's men who had to hold it. And therefore he ordered another army to be quickly called out, and after Michaelmas travelled into Wales. And his army split and went all through that land, until on All Saints' the army all came together to Snowdon; but the Welsh always went on ahead into the mountains and moors so that they could not be come at. And then the king turned homewards because he saw that he could do no more there that winter.

Then when the king came back, he then ordered Robert the earl of Northumbria to be seized and led to Bamburgh, and both eyes put out unless those who were inside would give up the castle. His wife and Morel, who was his steward and also his relative, held it. Through this, the castle was then given up; and Morel was then in the king's court, and through him there were revealed many, both ordained and also lay, who were disloyal to the king in their plan, some of whom the king ordered to be brought into captivity before that season; and afterwards to be announced, very peremptorily, over all this land, that all those who held land from the king, insofar as they wanted to be entitled to security, that they should be at court at the season. And the king ordered the earl Robert led to Windsor, and held inside the castle there.

Also in this same year, towards Easter, the pope's envoy came here to the land; that was Bishop Walter, a man of very good life from the city of Albano; and on Pentecost, on behalf of the pope Urban, he gave the archbishop Anselm his pallium, and he received it at his arch-seat in Canterbury. And the bishop Walter stayed here in the land for long in the year afterwards, and afterwards the Rome-tax was sent by him - as had not been done earlier for many years.

This same year also there was very unseasonable weather; and therefore all the earth-crops ripened all too moderately throughout all this land.

1096. In this year [1095] the king William held his court at Christmas in Windsor, and William, bishop of Durham, passed away there on New Year's Day. And on the octave of the Epiphany, the king and all his councillors were in Salisbury. There Geoffrey Bainard accused William of Eu, the king's relative, of being treacherous to the king, and fought him about it and overcame him in combat. And after he was overcome, the king ordered his eyes to be put out, and afterwards castrated. And his steward called William,who was the son of his mother's sister, the king ordered to be hanged on a cross. There also Odo earl of Champagne, the king's in-law, and many others were deprived of land, and some led to London and there mutilated.

This year also, at Easter, there was a very great stir throughout all this nation and in many other nations through Urban, who was called pope although he had nothing of the seat in Rome. And countless people, with women and children, set out because they wanted to war against heathen nations. Through this journey, the king and his brother Earl Robert became reconciled, in that the king went across the sea and redeemed all Normandy from him for money, by which they were then reconciled; and afterwards the earl travelled, and with him the earl of Flanders and he of Boulogne, and also many other head men. And the earl Robert and those who travelled with him stayed in Apulia for the winter; but of the people who went by Hungary, many thousands perished miserably there and on the way, and many, pitiful and hunger-bitten, dragged home again against winter.

This was a very heavy year throughout all the English race, both through manifold taxes and also through a very grievous famine which very much afflicted this country in the year. Also in this year, the head men who held this land regularly sent an army into Wales, and greatly afflicted many a man with that; but there was no success in that, but the destruction of men and waste of money.

1097. Here in this year [1096] the king William was in Normandy at Christmas, and then towards Easter went here to this land, because he thought to hold his court in Winchester; but he was hindered by bad weather until Easter eve, so that he came up first at Aurundel, and therefore held his court at Windsor.

And after that he travelled into Wales with a great raiding-army, and through some of the Welsh who came to him and were his guides, went deeply through that land with his army, and stayed there from midsummer well-nigh until August, and lost much there in men and in horses and also in many other things. Then afterwards the Welsh men turned against their king, and chose many leaders from among themselves; one of them was called Cadwgan, who was the finest of them; he was the son of King Gruffydd's brother. But then when the king saw that he could achieve nothing of his purpose there, he went back into this land, and quickly after that he had castles made along the borders.

Then after Michaelmas, on 4 October, a strange star appeared, shining in the evening and soon going to rest. It was seen in the south-west, and the ray that stood from it shining south-east seemed to be very long, and appeared in this way well-nigh all the week. Many men considered it was a comet.

Soon after this, Anselm the archbishop of Canterbury got leave from the king - though the king was unwilling, so it was considered - and went across the sea because it seemed to him that in this nation little was done according to justice and according to his direction. And following that, afterMartinmas, the king went across the sea into Normandy; but while he waited on the weather his court did much greater harm within the shires where they lay than a court or raiding-army ever ought to do in a land at peace. This was a very heavy year in all things, and over-laborious in bad weather both when tilling should be done and again when the produce [should be] gathered in, and in excessive taxes that never ceased. Also many shires, whose work pertained to London were badly afflicted through the wall which they constructed around the Tower, and through the bridge which was well-nigh washed away, and through work on the king's hall which was constructed at Westminster; and many a man was afflicted with that.

Also in this same year, soon after Michaelmas, the aetheling Edgar with the king's support travelled into Scotland with an army, and won that land with a fierce fight and drove out the king Donald, and there he set as king (in allegiance to the king William) his relative Edgar who was son of King Malcolm and the queen Margaret, and afterwards went back into England.

In this year [1097] at Christmas the king William was in Normandy; and Walchelin, bishop in Winchester, and Baldwin, abbot in St Edmunds, both passed away during this season. And in this year also Turold, abbot of Peterborough, passed away. Also in the summer of this year, in Berkshire at Finchampstead, a pool welled up blood/ as many trustworthy men said who must have seen it. And Earl Hugh was killed in Anglesey by foreign vikings,and his brother Robert became his heir, just as he acquired it of the king.Before Michaelmas the heaven appeared as if it were burning well-nigh all the night. This was a very laborious year through manifold excessive taxes and through great rains which did not cease all the year; well-nigh all produce on marsh-land perished.

Here [1098] the king William was in Normandy at midwinter, and at Easter came to the land here, and at Pentecost held his court for the first time in his new building at Westminster; and there gave the bishopric in Durham to Ranulf his chaplain who earlier conducted and supervised all his meetings all over England; and soon after that [the king] went across the sea, and drove the earl Helias out of Maine, and afterwards set it in his control; and so at Michaelmas came back here to the land. Also this year, on the Feast of St Martin the tide rose so strongly and did so much damage as no-one remembered it ever did before; and there was a new moon on the same day. And Osmund, bishop of Salisbury, passed away during Advent.

1100. In this year [1099] the king William held his court at Christmas in Gloucester, and at Easter in Winchester, and at Pentecost in Westminster.

And at Pentecost at a certain village in Berkshire blood was seen to well up from the earth, as many said who must have seen it. And after that, on the morning after Lammas Day, the king William was shot with an arrow in hunting by a man of his, and afterwards brought to Winchester and buried in the bishopric the thirteenth year after he succeeded to the kingdom.

He was very strong and violent over his land and his men and with all his neighbours, and very terrible. And through the advice of evil men, who were always agreeable to him, and through his own avarice, he was always harrassing this nation with raiding and with excessive taxes, because in his days every justice fell and there rose up every injustice before God and before the world. He humiliated God's church; and in his days, when the elders fellin bishoprics and abbacies he either granted them all in return for money, or held in his own hand and put out at rent, because he wanted to be the heir of every man, ordained and lay. And thus on the day that he fell, he had in his own hand the archbishopric in Canterbury and the bishopric in Winchester and that in Salisbury and eleven abbacies, all put out at rent. And although I prolong it further, all that was customary in this land in his time - all that was hateful to God and to just men. And therefore he was hated by well-nigh all his nation, and abhorrent to God, just as his end showed, because he departed in the midst of his injustice without repentance and any reparation.

He was killed on the Thursday and buried the next morning. And after he was buried those councillors who were near at hand chose his brother Henry as king. And straightway he gave the bishopric in Winchester to William Gifford and afterwards went to London, and on the Sunday after that, before the altar in Westminster, promised to God and all the people to put down all the injustices which there were during his brother's time, and to hold the best laws which had stood in any king's day before him. And then after that Maurice the bishop of London consecrated him as king, and all in this land submitted to him and swore oaths and became his men.

And soon after that, by the advice of those who were around him, the king had Ranulf bishop of Durham seized and brought into the Tower in London and held there. Then before Michaelmas Anselm the archbishop of Canterbury came here to the land, just as the king Henry sent for him, on the advice of his councillors, because he had gone out of this land because of the great injustice which the king William did him.

And then soon after this the king took as his wife Maud, daughter of King Malcolm of Scotland and the good queen Margaret, King Edward's relative, of the rightful royal family of England. And on the Feast of St Martin she was given to him in Westminster with great honour, and the archbishop Anselm married her to him and afterwards consecrated her queen. And soon after this Thomas the archbishop of York passed away.

Also in this same year, in autumn, the earl Robert and the earl Robert of Flanders and Eustace earl of Boulogne came home from Jerusalem into Normandy. And as soon as the earl Robert came into Normandy, he was joyfully received by all the people, except for the castles which were set with the king Henry's men, against which he had many a tussle and contest.

1101. Here in this year [1100] the king Henry held his court at Christmas in Westminster, and at Easter in Winchester. And then soon after that the head men here in the land became at odds with the king, both through their own great faithlessness and also because the earl Robert of Normandy set out with hostility here to the land. And then the king sent his ships out to sea to the damage and hindrance of his brother, but some of them afterwards failed at need, and turned away from the king and submitted to the earl Robert. Then at midsummer the king travelled out to Pevensey with all his army against his brother, and waited for him there. But in the middle of this the earl Robert came in at Portsmouth 12. days before Lammas; and the king came against him with all his army. But the head men went between them, and reconciled the brothers on the condition that the king relinquish all that he held within Normandy by force against the earl, and that all those in England who earlier lost their land through the earl should have it again, and also Earl Eustace all his father's land here in the land, and that each year the earl Robert should have three thousand marks of silver from England; and whichever of the brothers survived the other should be heir to all of England and of Normandy, unless the deceased had an heir in lawful wedlock. And then 12 of the highest from either side affirmed this by oath. And afterwards the earl stayed in the land until after Michaelmas; and during the time the earl stayed here in the land his men always did great harm as they travelled.

Also this year at Candlemas the bishop Ranulf escaped by night out of the Tower in London where he was in captivity, and went to Normandy; it was mostly his doing and instigation that this year the earl Robert sought out this land with hostility.

1102. In this year [1101] at the Nativity the king Henry was in Westminster, and at Easter in Winchester.

And soon after that, discord arose between the king and the earl Robert de Belleme, who had the earldom in Shrewsbury here in the land which his father Earl Roger possessed earlier, and great authority besides, both on this side of the sea and beyond. And the king travelled and besieged the castle at Arundel, but when he could not win it so quickly he had castles made in front of it and there set them with his men; and afterwards travelled with all his army to Bridgnorth, and stayed there until he had the castle, and deprived the earl Robert of land, and seized all that he had in England; and so the earl departed across the sea, and the army afterwards turned home.

Then, after that, at Michaelmas the king was at Westminster, and all the head men in this land, ordained and lay; and the archbishop Anselm held a synod of ordained men, and there they set down many decrees which pertain to Christendom; and there many, both French and English, lost their staffsand authority which they acquired with injustice, or lived in with iniquity.

And in this same year in Pentecost week there came thieves, some from Auvergne some from France and some from Flanders, and broke into the minster of Peterborough, and in there took much of value in gold and in silver, that was: crosses and chalices and candlesticks.

1103. Here in this year [1102] the king Henry was at Westminster at midwinter; and soon after that the bishop William Gifford travelled out of this land, because he did not want to receive his ordination, against the law, from the archbishop Gerard of York. And then at the Easter the king held his court in Winchester; and after that the archbishop Anselm travelled from Canterbury to Rome, just as he and the king agreed.

Also in this year the earl Robert of Normandy came to speak with the king here in the land; and before he travelled from here he gave up the three thousand marks which the king Henry, by covenant, had to give him each year.

Also in this year, at Finchampstead in Berkshire, blood from the earth was seen. This was a very disastrous year here in the land because of manifold taxes and because of pestilence among cattle and the ruin of crops, both in corn and also in all tree-crops. Also after the morning of the Feast of St Lawrence, the wind here in the land did such great harm to all the crops as no-one remembered it ever did before.

In this same year passed away Matthias, abbot of Peterborough, who lived no longer than one year after he was abbot. After Michaelmas on 21 October he was received as abbot with a procession, and on the same day the next year he died in Gloucester and was buried there.

1104. Here in this year [1103] at Christmas the king Henry held his court at Westminster, and at Easter in Winchester, and at Pentecost again in Westminster.

In this year the first day of Pentecost was on 5 June, and on the Tuesday after that at midday there appeared four circles around the sun, white in colour, and each intertwined under the other as if they were plaited. All who saw it marvelled because they did not remember anything like it ever before.

After this, the earl Robert of Normandy and Robert de Belleme, whom the king Henry had earlier deprived of land and driven out of England, were reconciled. And through their reconciliation the king of England and the earl of Normandy became at odds. And the king sent his people across the sea into Normandy, and the head men there in the land received them and, in betrayal of their lord the earl, lodged them in their castles, from where they caused the earl many troubles in raiding and in burning. Also this year William earl of Mortain went away from the land into Normandy; but after he was gone he worked against the king, for which the king deprived him of everything and confiscated the land which he had here in the land.

It is not easy to describe the miseries which this land was suffering at this time through various and manifold injustices and taxes which never left off or lessened. And always wherever the king went, there was, because of his court, wholesale raiding upon his miserable people, and with that very often burnings and slaughter of men.

All this was to gall God, and to harrass this wretched nation.

1105. In this year [1104] at the Nativity the king Henry held his court at Windsor; and after that, in the spring, he went across the sea into Normandy against his brother Earl Robert. And while he stayed there he won from his brother Caen and Bayeux and almost all the castles, and the head men there in the land became subject to him. And later, in the autumn, he came back again here to the land. And afterwards what he had won in Normandy remained in peace and obedient to him, except those who lived anywhere near the earl William of Mortain, whom he [the earl] frequently belaboured as much as he could because of his loss of land here in the land. Then before Christmas Robert de Belleme came here to this land to the king.

This was a very disastrous year here in the land through the ruin of the crops, and through the manifold taxes which never left off before the king went across - and then while he was there, and again after he came back.

1106. Here in this year at the Nativity [1105] the king was in Westminster and held his court there; and at that season Robert de Belleme went away from the king in discord, out of this land into Normandy.

Then after this, before spring, the king was at Northampton, and the earl Robert his brother came to him from Normandy; and because the king would not give him back what he had taken from him in Normandy they parted in discord and the earl immediately travelled back across the sea again.

In the first week of Lent, on the Friday, 16 February, an unusual star appeared in the evening, and for a long period after that was seen shining for a while each evening. The star appeared in the south-west; it seemed to be small and dark, but the light that stood from it was very bright and seemed like an enormous beam shining north-east; and one evening it was seen as if the beam were forking in the opposite direction, towards the star. Some said that they saw more unknown stars at this time, but we cannot write about it more clearly because we did not see it ourselves. On the night before the morning of The Lord's Supper, that is the Thursday before Easter, two moons were seen in the heavens before day, one to the east and the other to the west, both full; and the same day the moon was 14 days old.

At Easter the king was at Bath, and at Pentecost at Salisbury, because he did not want to hold a court on his setting out across the sea. After that, before August the king travelled across the sea into Normandy, and almost all who were there in the land submitted themselves to his will, except for Robert de Belleme and the earl of Mortain and a few other head men who still held with the earl of Normandy. And therefore the king afterwards went with an army and besieged a certain castle of the earl of Mortain, called Tinchebray.

While the king was besieging the castle, the earl Robert of Normandy came against the king with his army on the eve of Michaelmas, and with him Robert de Belleme, William earl of Mortain, and all those who agreed with them; but the strength and the victory were the king's. There the earl of Normandy was seized, and the earl of Mortain, and Robert d'Estouteville,and afterwards sent to England and brought into captivity. Robert de Belleme was put to flight there, and William Crispin captured and many along with him. The astheling Edgar, who a little earlier had gone over from the king to the earl, was also seized there, whom the king afterwards let go unmolested. Afterwards the king conquered all that was in Normandy, and set it under his will and control.

Also this year there were very heavy and continual conflicts between the emperor of Saxony and his son; during these conflicts the father passed away, and the son succeeded to the authority.

1107. In this year at Christmas [1106] the king Henry was in Normandy and arranged and set that land under his control, and after that in spring came here to the land, and at Easter held his court in Windsor, and at Pentecost in Westminster; and afterwards, at the beginning of August, was again at Westminster, and there gave and arranged for those bishoprics and abbacies in England or in Normandy which were without head or shepherd. There were so many that there was nobody who remembered so many being given together ever before.

And at this same time, among those others who received abbacies, Ernulf, who was prior in Canterbury earlier, succeeded to the abbacy in Peterborough. This was exactly some 7 years since the king Henry succeeded to the kingship, and it was the forty-first year since the French took control of this land. Many said that they saw various signs in the moon this year, and its light waxing and waning contrary to nature.

This year passed away Maurice bishop in London, and Robert abbot in Bury St Edmunds, and Richard abbot in Ely. Also this year passed away Edgar, the king in Scotland, on 13 January, and Alexander his brother succeeded to the kingdom, as the king Henry granted him..

1108. Here in this year at the Nativity [1107] the king Henry was in Westminster, and at Easter in Winchester, and at Pentecost back in Westminster, and after that, before August, he travelled into Normandy.

And Philip the king of France passed away on 5 August, and his son Louissucceeded to the kingdom, and afterwards there arose many conflicts between the king of France and that of England while he stayed in Normandy.

Also in this year the archbishop Gerard of York passed away before Pentecost, and afterwards Thomas was set for it.

1109. Here in this year at Christmas [1108] and at Easter the king Henry was in Normandy, and before Pentecost came here to the land and held his court in Westminster. There the covenants were completed and the oaths sworn to give his daughter to the emperor.

This year there were very many thunderstorms, and those very terrifying. And the archbishop Anselm of Canterbury passed away the day of 22 March; and the first day of Easter was on the Greater Litany.

1110. In this year the king Henry held his court at Christmas [1109] at Westminster; and at Easter he was at Marlborough. And at Pentecost he held his court for the first time in the New Windsor.

This year, before spring, the king sent his daughter across the sea with manifold treasures, and gave her to the emperor. On the fifth night in the month of May the moon appeared in the evening shining brightly, and afterwards its light waned little by little so that as soon as it was night it was so wholly quenched that neither light nor circle nor anything of it at all was seen; and remained thus well-nigh until day, and afterwards appeared full and shining brightly; that same day it was a fortnight old. All that night the sky was very clear and the stars over all the heaven shining very brightly. And tree-crops were badly seized by frost that night. After that, in the month of June, a star appeared in the north-east, and its ray stood out in front of it to the southwest, and was seen thus for many nights; and later on in the night, after it climbed higher, it was seen going away to the north-west.

This year Philip de Braose and William Malet and William Bainardwere deprived of land.

Also this year passed away Earl Helias who held Maine from the king Henry and on knee; and after his passing, the earl of Anjou succeeded and held it against the king.

This was a very disastrous year here in the land through the tax which the king took for his daughter's gift, and through bad weather by which the earth-crops were badly damaged, and tree-crops all well-nigh ruined all over this land.

This year work first started on the new minster in Chertsey.

1111. In this year the king Henry did not wear his crown at Christmas [1110], nor at Easter, nor at Pentecost; and in August he travelled across the sea into Normandy because of the enmity which some on the borders of France had towards him, and mostly because of the earl of Anjou who held Maine against him. After he came there they made many big raids,burnings and ravagings between them.

In this year the earl Robert of Flanders passed away and his son Baldwinsucceeded thereto.

This year the winter was very long and heavy and severe, and through that the earth-crops were badly damaged, and there occurred the greatest pestilence among cattle that anyone could remember.

1112. All this year the king Henry stayed in Normandy because of the enmity he had with France and with the earl of Anjou who held Maine against him. And while he was there he deprived of land and drove out of Normandy the earl of Evreux and William Crispin, and gave Philip de Braose back land of which he was earlier deprived. And he had Robert de Belleme siezed and put in prison.

This was a very good year and very productive in woods and fields, but it was very heavy and sorrowful through an immense pestilence among men.

1113. Here in this year the king Henry was in Normandy at the Nativity [1112] and at Easter and at Pentecost, and after that in summer he sent Robert de Belleme here to the land into the castle at

Wareham, and himself came here to the land soon after that.

1114. In this year the king Henry held his court at the Nativity [1113] at Windsor, and he did not hold court again this year.

And at midsummer he travelled with an army into Wales, and the Welsh came and made peace with the king; and he had castles constructed in there.And after that, in September, he went across the sea into Normandy.

This year, towards the end of May, a strange star was seen shining with long rays for many nights. Also in this same year one day there was so great an ebbtide everywhere as no-one remembered before, and such that men travelled across the Thames to the east of the bridge in London by riding and walking.This year there were very great winds in the month of October, but immeasurably great on the night of the octave of St Martin, and it was evident everywhere in woods and villages.

Also in this year the king gave the archbishopric in Canterbury to Ralph who was earlier bishop in Rochester;' and Thomas the archbishop in York passed away, and Thurstan succeeded to it; he was earlier the king's chaplain.

At the same time the king travelled towards the sea and wanted to cross, but the weather hindered him. Meanwhile he sent his writ to Ernulf, abbot of Peterborough, and commanded him to come to him with the greatest haste, because he wanted to speak with him privately. Then when he came to him, he pressed the bishopric of Rochester on him--and the archbishops and bishops and the nobility that was in England went along with the king. And he long resisted, but it was to no avail; and then the king ordered the archbishop that he should lead him to Canterbury and bless him as bishop whether he wanted or not. This was done in the village they call Bourne; that was the day of the 15 September. Then when the monks of Peterborough heard tell of that, they were as sorry as they had ever been before, because he was a very good and gentle man and did much good inside and outside while he lived there. May God Almighty dwell with him always! Then soon after that, through the desire of the archbishop of Canterbury, the king gave the abbacy to a monk of Seez who was called John; and soon after that the king and the archbishop of Canterbury sent him to Rome for the archbishop's pallium, and with him one a monk who is called Warner, and the archdeacon John the archbishop's nephew; and they succeeded well there.This was done on the day of 21 September in the village which they call Rowner; and the same day the king went on ship in Portsmouth.

1115. Here the king Henry was in Normandy at the Nativity [1114] and while he was there he brought it about that all the head men in Normandy performed homage and loyal oaths to William, his son whom he had by his queen. And after that he came here into the land in the month of July.

This year the winter was so severe with snow and with frost that no man then alive remembered one more severe; and through that there was an immense pestilence among cattle.

In this year the pope Paschal sent the pallium here to the land to Ralph, archbishop in Canterbury, and he received it with great honour at his arch-seat in Canterbury. Abbot Anselm who was nephew of Archbishop Anselm and the abbot John of Peterborough brought it from Rome.

1116. In this year the king Henry was at St Albans at the Nativity [1115] and there had the minster consecrated - and at Easter [he was] in Odiham.And also this year there was a very heavy winter, and severe and long, for the cattle and for everything. And immediately after Easter the king travelled across the sea into Normandy; and there were many big raids and plunderings and castles seized between France and Normandy. Mostly this hostility was because the king Henry helped his nephew the earl Theobald de Blois who was then at war against his lord, Louis the king of France.

This was a very laborious year and calamitous for the earth-crops through the immense rains that came just before August and were still very oppressive and troublesome when Candlemas came. Also this year was so barren of mast that none was heard tell of in all this land nor also in Wales. Also this year this land and the nation were regularly sorely oppressed through the taxes which the king took within boroughs and without.

In this same year all the minster of Peterborough burned, and all the buildings except the chapter-house and the dormitory; and besides, the most part of the town also all burned. All this happened on a Friday; that was 4 August.

1117. All this year the king Henry stayed in Normandy because of the hostility of the king of France and his other neighbours. And then in the summer the king of France and the earl of Flanders with him came into Normandy with an army, and stayed in there for one night, and in the morning travelled back without a battle. And Normandy was very oppressed both through taxes and through the army which the king Henry had gathered against them. Also this nation [England] became severely oppressed through the same - through manifold taxes.

This year also, on the night of 1 December, there were immense storms,with thunder, and lightning, and rain and hail. And on the night of 11 December for much of the night the moon became as if it were all bloody, and afterwards eclipsed. Also on the night of 16 December the heaven was seen very red, as if it were fire. And on the octave of St John the Evangelist there was the great earth-trembling in Lombardy, from which many minsters, towers and houses fell, and did great harm to men. This was a very calamitous year for corn through the rains which did not leave off well-nigh all year.

And the abbot Gilbert of Westminster passed away on 6 December; and Faricius abbot of Abingdon on 23 February. And in this same year . . .

1118. Here the king Henry stayed all this year in Normandy because of the war with the king of France and the earl of Anjou and the earl of Flanders. And the earl of Flanders was wounded in Normandy and, wounded thus, went into Flanders. Through the hostility of these the king became very troubled and lost much, both in money and also in land; and his own men troubled him most, who frequently deserted and betrayed him and turned over to his enemies, and gave up their castles to them to the king's harm and betrayal. England paid dear for all this through manifold taxes which did not leave off all this year.

In this year one evening in the week of the Ephiphany there was very great lightning, and after that immense thunder-claps.

And the queen Maud passed away in Westminster on the day of i May, and was buried there. And the earl Robert of Meulan also passed away this year.

Also in this year, on the Feast of St Thomas, there was so very immense a great wind that no-one then alive remembered one greater; and it was seen everywhere in houses and also in trees.

This year also passed away the pope Paschal, and John of Gaeta whose other name was Gelasius succeeded to the papacy.

1119. All this year the king Henry stayed in Normandy, and was regularly very troubled through the war with the king of France and also his own men who had turned away from him with treachery, until the two kings with their people joined battle in Normandy. There the king of France was put to flight and all his best men seized. And afterwards many of King Henry's men who were earlier against him with their castles, submitted to him and came to terms; and some of the castles he seized by force.

This year William, son of King Henry and the queen Maud, travelled into Normandy to his father, and there the earl of Anjou's daughter was given to him and wedded as wife.

On the eve of Michaelmas there was a great earth-trembling here in the land in certain places, though most severe in Gloucestershire and in Worcestershire.

In this same year the pope Gelasius passed away on this side of the mountains, and was buried in Cluny. And after him the archbishop of Vienne was chosen as pope, who took the name Calixtus; afterwards on the Feast of St Luke the Evangelist he came into France to Rheims and there held a council; and the archbishop Thurstan of York travelled to it; and because he had received his ordination from the pope against the law and against the arch-seat in Canterbury and against the king's will, the king forbade him any return passage to England; and thus he lost his archbishopric and went towards Rome with the pope.

Also in this year the earl Baldwin of Flanders passed away from the wounds which he received in Normandy; and after him Charles, his father's sister's son, succeeded to the authority; he was son of Cnut, the holy king of Denmark.

1120. This year the king of England and that of France became reconciled;and after their reconciliation all the king Henry's own men inside Normandy and the earl of Flanders and that of Ponthieu came to terms with him. Then after this the king Henry disposed his castles and his land in Normandy according to his wishes, and so went to the land here before Advent.

And on the journey the king's two sons William and Richard were drowned - and Richard earl of Chester and Ottuel his brother, and very many of the king's court: stewards, and chamberlains, and cup-bearers, and various officials, and countless very distinguished people along with them. To their friends the death of these was a double grief: one that they lost this life so suddenly, the other that few of their bodies were found anywhere afterwards.

This year the light came to the Sepulchre of the Lord in Jerusalem twice: once at Easter and another time on the Assumption of St Mary, just as the faithful said who came from there.

And the archbishop Thurstan of York came to terms with the king through the pope, and came here to the land and received his bishopric, although it was very displeasing to the archbishop of Canterbury.

1121. Here the king Henry was in Brampton at Christmas [1120]; and after that, in Windsor before Candlemas Adeliza who was daughter of the commander of Louvain was given him as wife, and afterwards consecrated as queen.

And the moon eclipsed on the eve of 5 April, and was a 14 [-day] moon.

And at Easter the king was at Berkeley, and after that at Pentecost he held a great court in Westminster; and later in the summer went into Wales with an army. And the Welsh came to meet him, and they came to terms with him according to the king's wishes.

This year the earl of Anjou came to his land from Jerusalem, and afterwards sent here to the land and had fetched his daughter who was earlier given as wife to the king's son William.

And on the night of Christmas Eve' there was a very great wind over all this land, and that was evident in many things.

1122. In this year the king Henry was in Norwich at Christmas [1121] and at Easter he was in Northampton.

In the preceding spring the town of Gloucester burned down. Then when the monks were singing their mass and the deacon had begun the gospel 'As Jesus passed by' the fire came in the upper part of the steeple and burned down all the minster and all the treasures which were inside there except for a few books and three chasubles; that was on the day of 8 March.

And after that, the Tuesday after Palm Sunday there was a very great wind on that day, 22 March; after that many signs came far and wide in England, and many illusions were seen and heard. And the night of 25 July there was a very great earthquake over all Somersetshire and in Gloucestershire. Afterwards on the day of 8 September, that was on the Feast of St Mary, there occured a great wind from 9 a.m. in the morning of the day until dark night.

This same year Ralph the archbishop of Canterbury passed away; that was on the day of 20 October. After that there were many ship-men on sea and on water, and [who] said that they saw in the north-east a great and broad fire near the earth, and it grew in length up to the sky; and the sky opened on four sides and fought against it as if it would quench it, and then the fire grew no more up to the heavens. They saw that fire at the break of day, and it lasted until it was light over all; that was on the day of 7 December.

1123. In this year the king Henry was at Dunstable at Christmas-time[1122] and the earl's envoys came from Anjou to him there; and from there he travelled to Woodstock, and his bishops and all his court with him. Then it happened on a Wednesday, that was on 10 January, that the king was riding in his deer-park, the bishop Roger of Salisbury on one side of him and the bishop Robert Bloet of Lincoln on the other side of him; and [they] rode there talking. Then the bishop of Lincoln sank down and said to the king: 'Lord king, I am dying'. And the king got down from his horse and caught him in his arms, and had him carried home to his lodging; and he was soon dead. And he was conveyed to Lincoln with great honour and buried in front of St Mary's altar; and the bishop of Chester [who] was called Robert Pecceth buried him.

Then immediately after that the king sent his writs over all England and asked all his bishops and his abbots and his thegns that they should come to his council-meeting, to Gloucester, to join him on Candlemas Day; and they did so. Then when they were all gathered, the king asked them that they should choose an archbishop for Canterbury for themselves, whomsoever they wanted, and he would give them his consent to it. Then the bishops spoke between themselves and said that they did not want ever again to have a man from monastic orders as archbishop over them, but all went together to the king and desired that they might chose as archbishop a man from the secular clergy, whomsoever they wanted; and the king gave them his consent to it. This was all done through the bishop of Salisbury, and through the bishop of Lincoln before his death, because they never liked monastic rule, but were always against monks and their rule. And the prior and the monks of Canterbury and all the others who were men in monastic orders withstood it fully two days, but it was to no avail because the bishop of Salisbury was strong and ruled all England, and was against it with all his power and ability. Then they chose a clerk [who] was called William of Corbeil - he was a canon from a minster called Cicc - and brought him before the king, and the king gave him the archbishopric, and all the bishops accepted him. The monks and earls and almost all the thegns who were there opposed him.

At the same time the envoys of the earl went away from the king with discord - did not account for anything of his gift.

At the same time there came a certain legate from Rome [who] was called Henry; he was abbot of the minster of St Jean d'Angely, and he came about the Rome-tax. And he told the king that it was against the law that a clerk should be set over monks; and even so, in their chapter they had earlier chosen an archbishop according to the law. But because of [his] love for the bishop of Salisbury the king would not reverse it. Then immediately after that the archbishop travelled to Canterbury and was received there, although it was against their will, and was immediately blessed as bishop there by the bishop of London, and the bishop Ernulf of Rochester, and the bishop William Gifford of Winchester, and the bishop Bernard of Wales, and the bishop Roger of Salisbury. Then soon, in the spring, the archbishop travelled to Rome for his pallium; and with him travelled the bishop Bernard of Wales, and Sigefrith abbot of Glastonbury, and Anselm abbot of St Edmunds, and John archdeacon of Canterbury, and Gifford [who] was the king's court clerk.

At the same time the archbishop Thurstan of York travelled to Rome at the pope's command, and came there three days before the archbishop of Canterbury came and was there received with great honour. Then the archbishop of Canterbury came, and was there a whole week before he could get to have talk with the pope; that was because the pope was given to understand that he had received the archbishopric in opposition to the monks of the minster, and against the law. But what overcame Rome was what overcomes all the world, that is gold and silver. And the pope relented and gave him his pallium; and the archbishop swore (by St Peter's head and St Paul's) submission to him in all those things which the pope laid on him, and then [the pope] sent him home with his blessing.

Then while the archbishop was out of the land, the king gave the bishopric of Bath to the queen's chancellor who was called Godfrey; he was born at Louvain. That was on the day of the Annunciation to St Mary at Woodstock. Then soon after that the king travelled to Winchester and was there all Easter-time, and then while he was there he gave the bishopric of Lincoln to a certain clerk [who] was called Alexander; he was the nephew of the bishop of Salisbury;'' this he did all for love of this bishop.

Then the king travelled from there to Portsmouth and lay there all over Pentecost week. Then as soon as he had a wind, he travelled over into Normandy, and then entrusted all England into the care and control of the bishop Roger of Salisbury. Then the king was in Normandy all the year, and then great hostility grew between him and his thegns, so that Waleran the earl of Meulan, and Almaric, and Hugh of Montfort, and William of Roumare, and many others turned from him and held their castles against him. And the king held out strongly against them; and this same year he won from Waleran his castle of Pont Audemer, and Montfort from Hugh; and afterwards he always succeeded the better the longer he went on.

This same year, before the bishop of Lincoln came to his bishopric, almost the whole town of Lincoln burned down, and a countless host of people, men and women, burned to death, and such great damage was done there that no-one could describe it to another. That was the day of 19 May.

1124. All this year the king Henry was in Normandy; that was because of the great hostilities that he had with the king Louis of France and with the earl of Anjou, and most of all with his own men.

Then on the day of the Annunciation to St Mary it happened that the earl Waleran of Meulan travelled from one of his castles called Beaumont close to another castle of his, Vatteville. With him travelled Almaric the steward of the king of France, Hugh son of Gervase and Hugh of Montfort and many other good knights. Then the king's knights from all the castles that were round about came against them and fought with them and put them to flight,and seized the earl Waleran, and Hugh son of Gervase, and Hugh of Montfort, and twenty-five other knights, and brought them to the king. And the king had the earl Waleran and Hugh son of Gervase put in captivity in the castle in Rouen, and he sent Hugh of Montfort to England and had him placed in vicious bonds in the castle in Gloucester, and of the others he sent as many as he thought north and south into captivity in his castles. Then afterwards the king travelled and won all the earl Waleran's castles in Normandy and all the others which his adversaries held against him.

All this hostility was because of the son of Earl Robert of Normandy, called William. The same William had taken to wife the younger daughter of Fulk earl of Anjou; and therefore the king of France and all the earls and all the powerful men held with him, and said that the king held his brother Robert in captivity wrongfully, and put to flight his son William out of Normandy unjustly.

This same year in England there were many failures in grain and in all crops, so that between Christmas and Candlemas the seed-wheat for an acre, that is two baskets of seed, sold at six shillings, and that of barley, that is three baskets of seed, at six shillings, and the seed-oats for an acre, that is four baskets of seed, at four shillings. That was because the grain was scarce and the penny was so bad that the man who had a pound at a market could not buy twelve penn'orth with it.

In this same year passed away the blessed Bishop Ernulf of Rochester who was abbot in Peterborough earlier; that was on the day of 15 March. And after that on the day of 23 April the king Alexander of Scotland passed away, and David his brother who was earl in Northamptonshire succeeded to the kingdom and had both together: the kingdom in Scotland and the earldom in England. And on the day of 14 December passed away the pope in Rome who was called Calixtus; and Honorius succeeded to the papacy.

This same year, after the Feast of St Andrew before Christmas Ralph Basset and the king's thegns held a council at Hundehoh in Leicestershire, and there hanged many more thieves than ever were before, that was in a little while forty-four men in all; and despoiled six men of their eyes and of their stones. Numbers of honest men said that many were despoiled with great injustice there; but our Lord God Almighty who sees and knows all secrets, he sees that the wretched people are oppressed with every injustice: first they are robbed of their goods, and afterwards they are killed. It was a very heavy year. The man who had any property was robbed of it by severe taxes and by severe courts; he who had none died of starvation.

1125. In this year before Christmas [1124] the king Henry sent from Normandy to England and commanded that all the moneyers who were in England should be deprived of their limbs, that was the right hand of each of them and their stones below; that was because the man who had a pound could not buy a penn'orth at a market. And the bishop Roger of Salisbury sent over all England and commanded them all that they should come to Winchester at Christmas. Then when they came there they were seized one by one, and each deprived of the right hand and the stones below. All this was done inside the twelve nights; and it was all very proper because they had done for all the land with their great fraud, which they all paid for.

In this year the pope sent a cardinal from Rome to this land [who] was called John of Crema. He came first to the king in Normandy, and the king received him with great honour and afterwards commended him to the archbishop William of Canterbury, and he led him to Canterbury, and there he was received with great honour and with a great procession, and he sang the high mass on Easter Day at Christ's altar; and afterwards he travelled over all England to all the bishoprics and abbacies which were in this land, and everywhere he was received with honour, and all gave him great and splendid gifts. And afterwards, on the Nativity of St Mary in September he held his council in London for three full days, with archbishops, and with diocesan bishops, and abbots, and clerics and lay; and there commanded those same laws which Archbishop Anselm had earlier decreed, and many more, though it was of little avail. And from there he went across the sea soon after Michaelmas, and thus to Rome - and the archbishop William of Canterbury, and the archbishop Thurstan of York, and the bishop Alexander of Lincoln, and John the bishop of Lothian, and the abbot Geoffrey of St Albans - and were received there by the pope Honorius with great honour, and were there all the winter.

In this same year on the Feast of St Lawrence there occurred so great a flood that many villages and men were drowned, and bridges broken down, and corn and pasture wholly destroyed, and famine and disease among men and among cattle; and there occurred greater unseasonableness for all crops than for many years before.

And this same year on 14 October the abbot John of Peterborough passed away.

1126. All this year the king Henry was in Normandy right up to after harvest; then he came to this land between the Nativity of St Mary and Michaelmas. With him came the queen and his daughter whom he had earlier given as wife to the emperor Henry of Lorraine. And he brought with him the earl Waleran and Hugh son of Gervase; and he sent the earl to Bridgnorth in captivity, and afterwards he sent him from there to Walling- ford, and Hugh to Windsor, and had him put in strict confinement.

And then after Michaelmas came David, the king of Scots, from Scotland here to the land; and the king Henry received him with great honour, and he then stayed the whole year in this land.

In this same year the king had his brother Robert taken from the bishop Roger of Salisbury, and committed him to his son Robert earl of Gloucester,and had him led to Bristol and there put in the castle/ That was all done through the advice of his daughter and through her uncle, David the king of Scots.

1127. This year the king Henry held his court at Christmas [nz6] in Windsor. David the king of Scots was there, and all the head [men], clerical and lay, that were in England; and there he had archbishops, and bishops, and abbots, and earls, and all those thegns who were there, swear England and Normandy after his day into the hand of his daughter Aethelic, who was earlier wife of the emperor of Saxony; and afterwards sent her to Normandy (and with her travelled her brother Robert, earl of Gloucester, and Brian,son of the earl Alan Fergant), and had her wedded to the son of the earl of Anjou, [who] was called Geoffrey Martel. Despite the fact that it offended all the French and English, the king did it in order to have peace from the earl of Anjou, and in order to have help against William his nephew.

In the spring-time this same year the earl Charles of Flanders was killed by his own men in a certain church where he lay before the altar and prayed to God during the mass. And the king of France brought William the son of the earl of Normandy, and gave him the earldom, and the local people accepted him. This same William had earlier taken to wife the daughter of the earl of Anjou, but they were afterwards divorced for consanguinity. That was all through the king Henry of England. Afterwards he took to wife the sister of the wife of the king of France, and therefore the king gave him the earldom of Flanders.

This same year he gave the abbacy of Peterborough to an abbot [who] was called Henry of Poitou. He had his abbacy of St Jean d'Angely in hand, and all the archbishops and bishops said that it was against the law, and that he could not have two abbacies in hand; but the same Henry gave the king to understand that he had left his abbacy because of the great hostility that was in that land, and he did that through the advice and leave of the pope of Rome and of the abbot of Cluny, and because he was legate about the Rome-tax.But despite that it was just not so; but he wanted to have both in hand - and had so, for as long as it was God's will. While in his clerk's orders he was bishop in Soissons; afterwards he became a monk in Cluny, and later became prior in the same minster; and later he became prior in Savigny. After that, because he was relative of the king of England and of the earl of Poitou, the earl gave him the abbacy of St Jean d'Angely. Afterwards through his great tricks he then got hold of the archbishopric of Besancon, and then had it in hand for three days; then he lost it, justly, because earlier he had got hold of it unjustly. Then afterwards he got hold of the bishopric of Saintes, which was five miles from his abbacy; he had that in hand well-nigh a week; the abbot of Cluny got him out from there, just as he earlier did from Besancon. Then it occurred to him that, if he could get firmly rooted in England, he could get all his own way; then besought the king, and said to him that he was an old man and a broken-down man, and that he could not endure the great injustices and the great hostilities there were in their land; and then, personally and by means of all his well-known friends, begged for the abbacy of Peterborough. And the king granted it to him because he was his relative, and because he had been a principal in swearing the oath and witnessing when the son of the earl of Normandy and the daughter of the earl of Anjou were divorced for consanguinity. Thus wretchedly the abbacy was given, between Christmas and Candlemas at London; and so he travelled with the king to Winchester, and from there he came to Peterborough, and there he stayed exactly as drones do in a hive. All that the bees carry in, drones devour and carry off; and so did he. All that he could take, inside or outside, from clergy and lay, he sent across the sea, and did nothing good there nor left nothing good there.

Let it not be thought remarkable, the truth of what we say, because it was fully known over all the land, that immediately after he came there (that was the Sunday when they sing Awake, why sleepest thou, O Lord?) then soon afterwards many men saw and heard many huntsmen hunting. The huntsmen were black and huge and loathesome, and their hounds all black and wide-eyed and loathesome, and they rode on black horses and on black billy-goats. This was seen in the very deer-park of the town of Peterborough, and in all the woods there were from that same town to Stamford; and the monks heard the horns blow that they blew in the night. Honest men who kept watch in the night said that it seemed to them there might well have been about twenty or thirty horn-blowers. This was seen and heard from when he came there, all that Lenten-tide right up to Easter. This was his entrance: of his exit we cannot yet say. May God provide!

1128. All this year the king Henry was in Normandy because of the hostility that was between him and his nephew the earl of Flanders. But the earl became wounded by a young man in a battle, and thus wounded went to the minster of St Bertin, and straightway became a monk there, and afterwards lived for five days, and then he died and was buried there. God have mercy on his soul! That was on the day of 27 July.

This same year passed away the bishop Ranulf Passeflambard of Durham, and was buried there on 5 September.

And this same year the afore-mentioned Abbot Henry travelled home to Poitou to his own minster, by leave of the king. He gave the king to understand that he would relinquish that minster and that land and stay with him there in England and in the minster of Peterborough, but despite that it was not so. He did it because he wanted, through his great wiles, to stay there, were it twelve months or more, and come back afterwards. God Almighty have pity on that unhappy place!

This same year Hugh of the Temple came from Jerusalem to the king in Normandy; and the king received him with great honour, and gave him great treasures in gold and in silver; and afterwards he sent him to England, and there he was received by all good men, and all gave him treasures - and in Scotland likewise - and by him sent much wealth, all in gold and in silver, to Jerusalem. And he summoned people out to Jerusalem; and then there went, with him and after him, as great a number of people as ever did before since the first expedition which was in Pope Urban's day, though little came of it. He said that a great battle was set between the Christians and the heathen; then when they came there, it was nothing but lies; thus all the people became wretchedly afflicted.

1129. In this year the king sent to England for the earl Waleran and for Hugh son of Gervase and they gave hostages for them there. And Hugh travelled home to France to his own lands, and Waleran remained with the king, and the king gave him all his lands, except for his castle only. Afterwards in the autumn the king came to England, and the earl came with him and they then became as good friends as they were earlier enemies.

Then soon, by the king's advice and by his leave, the archbishop William of Canterbury sent over all England and summoned bishops and abbots and archdeacons and all the priors, monks and canons that were in all the cells in England, and to all those who had to care for and look after Christendom, that they should all come to London at Michaelmas, and should there speak of all God's dues. Then when they came there, the meeting began on Monday and continued right on till the Friday. When it all came out, it turned out to be all about archdeacons' wives and priests' wives - that they should relinquish them by the Feast of St Andrew and anyone who would not do so was to forgo his church and his house and his home, and never more have any further claim to them. This was commanded by the archbishop William of Canterbury and all the diocesan bishops who were then in England; and the king gave them all leave to travel home, and so they travelled home. And all the decrees were of no avail - all kept their wives by leave of the king, just as they did before.

In the same year the bishop William Gifford of Winchester passed away and was buried there on 25 January. And after Michaelmas the king Henry gave the bishopric to his nephew the abbot Henry of Glastonbury, and he was consecrated as bishop by the archbishop William of Canterbury on the day of 17 November.

This same year passed away Pope Honorius. Before he was well dead two popes were chosen there. The one was called Peter; he was a monk of Cluny and born from the most powerful men of Rome, and with him held those from Rome and the duke of Sicily. The other was called Gregory; he was a clerk and was put to flight out of Rome by the other pope and his relatives; with him held the emperor of Saxony and the king of France and the king Henry of England, and all those this side of the mountains. Now occured such great heresy in Christendom as there ever was before. May Christ establish counsel for his miserable people!

This same year, on the eve of the Feast of St Nicholas, a little before day, there was a great earthquake.

1130. This year the minster of Canterbury was consecrated by the archbishop William on the day of 4 May. There were there the bishops: John of Rochester, Gilbert 'Universalis' of London, Henry of Winchester, Alexander of Lincoln, Roger of Salisbury, Simon of Worcester, Roger of Coventry, Godfrey of Bath, Everard of Norwich, Sigefrith of Chichester, Bernard of St David's, Audoen of Evreux from Normandy, John of Seez.

On the fourth day after that, the king Henry was in Rochester, and the borough almost burned down; and the archbishop William consecrated St Andrew's minster, the afore-mentioned bishops with him. And at harvest the king Henry travelled across the sea into Normandy.

This same year the abbot Henry of Angely came to Peterborough after Easter and said that he had wholly relinquished the minster [of Angely]. After him, with the king's leave, the abbot called Peter of Cluny came to Englandand was received with great honour everywhere wheresoever he came. He came to Peterborough and there the abbot Henry promised him that he would get him the minster of Peterborough so that it would be subject to Cluny. But as it says in the proverb: 'Hedge abides that fields divides'. May God Almighty destroy evil plans! And soon after that the abbot of Cluny travelled home to his [own] country.

1131. This year after Christmas [1130], on Sunday night at the first sleep, the heaven on the north side was all as if it were a burning fire, so that all who saw it were more afraid than they ever were before; that was on 11 January. This same year there was as great a pestilence among livestock as anyone remembered before over the whole of England; that was among cattle and among pigs so that in the village where ten or twelve ploughs were going not one remained there, and the man that had two or three hundred pigs had not one left. After that the hens died, then the meat and the cheese and the butter were short. May God improve it when it is His will!

And the king Henry came home to England before harvest after the earlier Feast of St Peter.

This same year before Easter the abbot Henry went across the sea to Normandy from Peterborough, and there spoke with the king and told him that the abbot of Cluny had commanded him that he should come to him and hand over to him the abbacy of Angely; and afterwards, by his leave, he would come home. So he travelled home to his own minster, and stayed there right up to midsummer day; and the next day after the Feast of St John the monks chose an abbot from themselves, and brought him into church with procession, sang the "Te Deum Laudamus," rang the bells, set him in the abbot's seat and did him all such obedience as they should do their abbot; and the earl and all the head men and the monks of the minster put Henry, the other abbot, to flight out of the minster. They had to, from necessity; they had never experienced one good day in five-and-twenty years. Here all his great cunning failed him; now he need creep into his great bag [of tricks], into every corner [to see] if there were at least one dodgy trick so that he might deceive Christ and all Christian people yet once more. Then he travelled into Cluny, and there he was held so that he could not go east nor west. The abbot of Cluny said that they had lost the minster of St Jean [d'Angely] through him and through his great stupidity. Then he knew no better remedy for himself but to promise them and swear oaths on relics that, if he could reach England, he would get them the minster of Peterborough, so that he should set there a prior from Cluny, and sacristan and treasurer and wardrobe-keeper, and he would commit to them everything that was inside and outside the minster. Thus he travelled into France and stayed there all that year. May Christ take measures for the wretched monks of Peterborough and for that wretched place! Now they need the help of Christ and of all Christian people.

1132. This year King Henry came to this land. Then came Abbot Henry, and accused the monks of Peterborough to the king because he wished to subject that minster to Cluny, so that the king was well-nigh lured and sent for the monks. And through God's mercy and through the bishop of Salisbury and the bishop of Lincoln and the other powerful men who were there, the king then knew that he acted with treachery. Then when he could do nothing more, he wished that his nephew should be abbot in Peterborough; but Christ did not want it. It was not very long after that that the king sent for him, and made him give up the abbacy of Peterborough and go out of the land; and the king gave the abbacy to a prior of St Neot's [who] was called Martin. He came into the minster with great honour on the Feast of St Peter.

1135. In this year, at the Lammas, the king Henry went across the sea, and the next day, while he lay asleep on ship, the day darkened over all lands, and the sun became as if it were a three-night-old moon - and stars around it at midday. Men became very astonished and terrified, and said that something important would come after this; so it did, because that very year it happened the king died in Normandy the next day after the Feast of St Andrew. Then this land immediately grew dark because every man who could immediately robbed another. Then his son and his friends took and brought his body to England, and buried it at Reading. He was a good man and was held in great awe. In his time no man dared do wrong against another; he made peace for man and beast; no man dared say anything but good to whoever carried their load of gold and silver.

In the middle of this his nephew Stephen de Blois had come to England, and came to London, and the London people received him and sent for the archbishop William Corbeil and consecrated him as king on midwinter's day. In this king's time it was all strife and evil and robbery because the powerful men who were traitors immediately rose against him [1136]; first of all Baldwin de Redvers, and held Exeter against him; and the king besieged it, and afterwards Baldwin came to terms. Then the others took and held their castles against him; and David, king of Scotland, took to warring upon him; then, notwithstanding, their envoys travelled between them and they came together and were reconciled, though it was to little avail.

1137. This year the king Stephen went across the sea to Normandy, and was received there because they imagined that he would be just like the uncle was, and because he still had his treasury; but he distributed and scattered it stupidly. King Henry had gathered a great amount [in] gold and silver - and no good was done with it for his soul.

When the king Stephen came to England he held his council at Oxford, and there he seized the bishop Roger of Salisbury and his nephewsAlexander bishop of Lincoln and the chancellor Roger, and put all in prison until they gave up their castles. Then when the traitors realised that Stephen was a mild man, gentle and good, and imposed no penalty, they committed every enormity. They had done him homage and sworn oaths, but they held to no pledge.

They were all forsworn and their pledges lost because every powerful man made his castles and held them against him, and filled the land full of castles. They greatly oppressed the wretched men of the land with castle-work; then when the castles were made, they filled them with devils and evil men. Then both by night and by day they seized those men whom they imagined had any wealth, common men and women, and put them in prison to get their gold and silver, and tortured them with unspeakable tortures, for no martyrs were ever tortured as they were. They hung them up by the feet and smoked them with foul smoke. They hung them by the thumbs, or by the head, and hung mail-coats on their feet. They put knotted strings round their heads and twisted till it went to the brains. They put them in dungeons where there were adders and snakes and toads, and destroyed them thus. Some they put into a 'crucet-hus', that is, into a chest that was short and narrow and shallow, and put sharp stones in there and crushed the man in there, so that he had all the limbs broken. In many of the castles was a 'lof and grin', that were chains such that two or three men had enough to do to carry one. It was made thus: it is fastened to a beam, and a sharp iron put around the man's throat and his neck so that he could not move in any direction, neither sit nor lie nor sleep, but carry all that iron. Many thousands they destroyed with hunger.

I do not know nor can I tell all the horrors nor all the tortures that they did to wretched men in this land. And it lasted the 19 years while Stephen was king, and it always grew worse and worse. They laid a tax upon the villages time and again, and called it tenserie. Then when the wretched men had no more to give, they robbed and burned all the villages, so that you could well go a whole day's journey and never find anyone occupying a village or land tilled. Then corn was dear, and flesh and cheese and butter, because there was none in the land. Wretched men starved with hunger; some who were once powerful men went on alms; some fled out of the land. Never before was there more wretchedness in the land, nor ever did heathen men worse than they did. Too many times they spared neither church nor churchyard, but took everything of value that was in it, and afterwards burned the church and everything together. They did not spare the land of bishops nor of abbots nor of priests, but robbed monks and clerks; and every man who was the stronger [robbed] another. If two or three men came riding to a village, all the villagers fled because of them -imagined that they were robbers. The bishops and the clergy always cursed them but that was nothing to them, because they were all accursed and forsworn and lost.

Wherever men tilled, the earth bore no corn because the land was all done for by such doings; and they said openly that Christ and His saints slept.Such things, and more than we know how to tell, we suffered 19 years for our sins.

In all this evil time, Abbot Martin held his abbacy for 20 and a half years and 8 days with great energy, and provided everything necessary for the monks and the guests, and held great alms-givings in the house; and nevertheless worked on the church and set lands and revenues for it, and endowed it well, and had it roofed, and brought them into the new minster with great honour on the Feast of St Peter; that was in the year 1140 from the incarnation of the Lord, 23 from the burning of the place} And he went to Rome and was well received there by the pope Eugenius and there got privileges, one for all the lands of the abbacy and another for the lands that pertain to the sacrist; and if he could have lived longer he meant to do the same for the treasurer. And he got back lands which powerful men held by force. From William Maudit who held the castle of Rockingham he won Cottingham and Easton; and from Hugh de Vatteville he won Irthlingbor-ough and Stanwick and 60 shillings each year from Aldwinkle. And he made many monks and planted a vineyard and made many buildings, and altered the town better than it was before, and was a good monk and a good man, and therefore God and good men loved him.

Now we wish to tell some part of what happened in King Stephen's time.In his time the Jews of Norwich bought a Christian child before Easter, and tortured him with all the same tortures with which our Lord was tortured, and on Good Friday hanged him on a cross for love of our Lord, and afterwards buried him - imagined that it would be concealed, but our Lord showed that he was a holy martyr, and the monks took him and buried him reverently in the minster, and through our Lord he performs wonderful and manifold miracles; and he is called St William.

1138. In this year David king of Scotland came to this land with an immense army and wanted to win this land. And there came against him William earl of Aumale to whom the king had entrusted York, and other steadfast men with a few men, and fought with them and put the king to flight at the Standard and killed a very great number of his company.

1140 [1139]. In this year the king Stephen wanted to take Robert earl of Gloucester, the son of King Henry, but he could not because he became aware of it.

[1140]. After that, in the spring, the sun and the day darkened about noontime in the day when men were eating, so that men lit candles to eat by; and that was 20 March, and men were very astonished.

[1136]. After that William archbishop of Canterbury passed away, and [1139] the king made Theobald, who was abbot in Bee, archbishop.

[1140]. After that there grew a very great war between the king and Ranulf earl of Chester; not because he did not give him all that he could ask him, as he did all others, but always the more he gave them, the worse they were to him. The earl held Lincoln against the king, and deprived him of all that he ought to have. And the king went there and besieged him and his brother William of Roumare in the castle; and the earl stole out and travelled for Robert earl of Gloucester, and brought him there with a great army [1141] and on Candlemas Day they fought hard against their lord and seized him because his men betrayed him and fled, and led him to Bristol and put [him] in prison and in fetters there. Then the whole of England was more disturbed than it ever was before, and every evil was in the land.

[ 1139]. After that came the daughter of King Henry, who had been empress in Germany and was now countess in Anjou, and came to London; [1141] and the London people wanted to seize her, and she fled and lost a great deal there.

[1141]. After that, the bishop of Winchester, Henry the brother of King Stephen, spoke with Earl Robert and with the empress and swore them oaths that he would never more hold with the king his brother, and cursed all the men who held with him, and told them that he would give up Winchester to them, and had them come there. Then when they were in there, the king's queen came with all her forces and besieged them so that there was great hunger in there. Then when they could endure it no longer, they stole out and fled, and those outside became aware of it and followed them and seized Robert earl of Gloucester and led him to Rochester and put him in prison there. And the empress fled into a minster. Then the wise men travelled between and reconciled the king's friends and the earl's friends, so that the king should be let out of prison [in exchange] for the earl, and the earl for the king; and they did so.

[1142]. Then after that, the king and Earl Ranulf were reconciled at Stamford and swore oaths and affirmed pledges that neither of them should betray the other; and it availed nothing, because [1146] the king, through wicked advice, afterwards seized him in Northampton and put him in prison; and soon after, on worse advice, he let him out on condition that he swore on relics and found hostages [as assurance] that he should give up all his castles. Some he gave up, and some he did not give; and then did worse here than he should.

Then England was very divided: some held with the king and some with the empress, because then when the king was in prison the earls and the powerful men imagined that he would never come out again, and were reconciled with the empress and brought her into Oxford [1141] and gave her the town. Then when the king got out he heard tell of it and took his army and [1142] besieged her in the tower; and in the night she was let down from the tower with ropes and stole out, and she fled and went on foot to Wallingford.

[1147]. After that she travelled across the sea, and [1141-4] those of Normandy all turned away from the king and to the earl of Anjou, some of their own will, and some against their will, because he besieged them until they gave up their castles; and they had no help from the king.

[1140]. Then Eustace the king's son travelled to France and took to wife the sister of the king of France and thought to get Normandy through that, but he had little success, and with just cause, because he was an evil man,because wheresoever he came he did more evil than good; he robbed the lands and laid great taxes on them. He brought his wife to England and put her in the castle in Canterbury.

She was a good woman but she had little happiness with him, and Christ did not wish that he should rule long, and he [1153] and his mother [1152] both died.

[1151]. And the earl of Anjou died and his son Henry took on the authority. And [1152] the queen of France separated from the king, and she came to the young earl Henry and he took her to wife, and all Poitou with her. Then [1153] he travelled into England with a great army, and won castles, and the king travelled against him with a much greater army; and nevertheless they did not fight, but the archbishop and the wise men travelled between them and made that pact that the king should be lord and king while he lived, and after his day Henry would be king, and he should hold him as father, and he him as son, and peace and reconciliation should be between them and in all England. This and the other conditions that they made, the king and the earl and the bishops and the earls and all powerful men swore to hold. Then the earl was received with great honour at Winchester and at London, and all did him homage and swore to hold the peace; and soon it became a very good peace, such as there never was before. Then the king was stronger than he ever was before; and the earl travelled across the sea, and all the people loved him because he did good justice and made peace.

1154. In this year the king Stephen died and was buried where his wife and his son were buried at Faversham, the minster that they made. When the king died the earl was beyond the sea, and no man dared do other than good because of great awe of him. Then when he came to England, he was received with great honour and was blessed as king in London on the Sunday before midwinter day, and there held a great court.

Then the very day that Martin abbot of Peterborough should have gone there [to court] he fell sick, and he died on 2 January, and within the day the monks chose another from themselves who is called William de Vatteville, a good clerk and good man, and well loved by the king and by all good men. And [they] buried the abbot solemnly in the morning and immediately the chosen abbot and the monks with him travelled to Oxford to the king, and he gave him that abbacy, and he made his way immediately to Lincoln and was there blessed as abbot before he came home, and was afterwards received with great honour at Peterborough with a great procession; and so likewise was he at Ramsey and at Thorney and at Crowland and Spalding and at St Albans, and went home and is now abbot, and has made a fine beginning. Christ grant that he may end thus!

Source:The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, trans. by Michael Swanton (London, 1996). Scanned and proofread by Eric C. Knibbs, 2006. Annotated by Anders Winroth.

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© 2006 Anders Winroth